Opened 12 years ago

# Abelian groups

Reported by: Owned by: Rob Beezer Alex Ghitza major sage-6.4 algebra David Loeffler, John Cremona, William Stein, Nicolas M. Thiéry, Kelly Boothby, Jason Grout, Karl-Dieter Crisman, Mike Hansen, Justin Walker, Alex Ghitza Rob Beezer N/A

### Description

This patch will implement abelian groups, both additive and multiplicative, finite and infinite, under a common abstract class, using machinery for quotients of modules over ZZ. This will make subgroups, intersections of subgroups, isomorphism classes, and quotient groups possible. Generators may be of any type, so long as they support the minimal operations required.

### comment:1 Changed 12 years ago by Rob Beezer

Authors: → Rob Beezer David Loeffler John Cremona William Stein Nicolas M. Thiéry Kelly Boothby Jason Grout Karl-Dieter Crisman added new → needs_info defect → enhancement

AAG is the class of additive abelian groups. This is an infinite group with a subgroup and a quotient. (Typically quotients lose the generators and are "generic" but not in this example.)

sage: A=AAG([3,4,0])
sage: A.gens()
((2, 3, 0), (0, 0, 1))
sage: A.0.order()
12
sage: A.1.order()
+Infinity
sage: B=A.subgroup([A.1])
sage: B
Infinite additive abelian group isomorphic to Z with generator(s): (0, 0, 1)
sage: C=A/B
sage: C
Finite additive abelian group isomorphic to Z_12 with generator(s): (2, 3, 0)

GUN is a constructor of Groups of Units Mod n. It employs MAG, the class of multiplicative abelian groups. This is an intersection of two subgroups, and then a Cayley table is free (in the category of multiplicative groups).

sage: G=GUN(72)
sage: G.list()
[1, 65, 49, 17, 25, 41, 55, 47, 31, 71, 7, 23, 37, 29, 13, 53, 61, 5, 19, 11, 67, 35, 43, 59]
sage: G.subgroup([71,7])
Finite multiplicative abelian group isomorphic to Z_2 + Z_6 with generator(s): 55, 65
sage: K=G.subgroup([71,7])
sage: K.list()
[1, 65, 49, 17, 25, 41, 55, 47, 31, 71, 7, 23]
sage: L=G.subgroup([13,7])
sage: L
Finite multiplicative abelian group isomorphic to Z_2 + Z_6 with generator(s): 55, 61
sage: L.list()
[1, 61, 49, 37, 25, 13, 55, 43, 31, 19, 7, 67]
sage: M=K.intersection(L)
sage: M.list()
[1, 7, 49, 55, 25, 31]
sage: M
Finite multiplicative abelian group isomorphic to Z_6 with generator(s): 7
sage: M.cayley_table()
*  a b c d e f
+------------
a| a b c d e f
b| b c d e f a
c| c d e f a b
d| d e f a b c
e| e f a b c d
f| f a b c d e

This is an example from the current additive abelian wrapper class. It shows the generators keyword allowing arbitrary elements to form the group, so long as they know how to add. GUN above is similar, but with multiplication.

sage: E = EllipticCurve('30a2')
sage: pts = [E(4,-7,1), E(7/4, -11/8, 1), E(3, -2, 1)]
sage: M=AAG([3,2,2], generators=pts)
sage: M.list()
[(0 : 1 : 0), (13 : -52 : 1), (4 : -7 : 1), (3 : -2 : 1), (4 : 2 : 1), (13 : 38 : 1), (7/4 : -11/8 : 1), (1 : -4 : 1), (-2 : -7 : 1), (-5 : 2 : 1), (-2 : 8 : 1), (1 : 2 : 1)]
sage: M.gens()
((7/4 : -11/8 : 1), (13 : -52 : 1))
sage: N=M.subgroup([M.1])
sage: N
Finite additive abelian group isomorphic to Z_6 with generator(s): (13 : -52 : 1)
sage: N.list()
[(0 : 1 : 0), (13 : -52 : 1), (4 : -7 : 1), (3 : -2 : 1), (4 : 2 : 1), (13 : 38 : 1)]

There is lots to do here still: different filenames, different class names, error-checking, doctests, comparisons, and so on. But the code seems to be working. I'm not 100% confident on the __call__ method of the main abstract class and I don't know if I need some things to support coercion better. Any advice or comments at this stage would be appreciated before I begin to clean this all up.

### comment:2 follow-ups:  3  5 Changed 12 years ago by John Palmieri

Will this interact at all with the class CombinatorialFreeModule? I don't know what the long term plans are, or even if there are any, for connecting this with FreeModule, but the combinatorial version has some nice features.

Also, how do you define R or Q as additive abelian groups with this setup?

### comment:3 in reply to:  2 Changed 12 years ago by Rob Beezer

Hi John,

Thanks for the good questions. I began this when I tried to implement a multiplicative group in concert with the work at #6449. So I really didn't even have groups like R and Q in mind. Truth-in-advertising would suggest I sprinkle in some "finitely generated" qualifiers in class names and filenames.

I've plugged this into the categories framework as groups, but hadn't thought about modules. I'll go take a look at all that to see how this might fit in. Maybe Nicolas Thiery will have some ideas as well.

Thanks again, Rob

### comment:5 in reply to:  2 Changed 12 years ago by Rob Beezer

Will this interact at all with the class CombinatorialFreeModule? I don't know what the long term plans are, or even if there are any, for connecting this with FreeModule, but the combinatorial version has some nice features.

I looked at these two classes. Generally they seem to require the same ring in each "component", whereas the FGP_Module class allows for diffferent rings in each component, such as in creating something like Z_3 x Z_4. So I don't see an abvious way to leverage these, but maybe I'm missing something.

Rob

# To the release manager

Please close #9694 when this ticket is merged.

### comment:7 Changed 12 years ago by Rob Beezer

Code is stablizing in draft 2 patch, and I'm starting to write the doctests. Still uncertain about __call__ and now its interactions with __contains__.

There are liberal comments in the code and the units_modn module has a rather complete demo of functionality.

### comment:8 follow-ups:  9  10 Changed 12 years ago by Paul Zimmermann

Question: does this patch solve #10181?

Paul Zimmermann

### comment:9 in reply to:  8 ; follow-up:  11 Changed 12 years ago by John Palmieri

Question: does this patch solve #10181?

While we're at it, how about #9940?

### comment:10 in reply to:  8 Changed 12 years ago by Rob Beezer

Question: does this patch solve #10181?

Short answer: this could speed up subgroups() by a factor of 8, if my experiments are right. We won't beat Magma, but we won't be embarassed on really small examples. This patch does not have a subgroups() method yet, but could be easy to add.

Full details at #10181. Thanks for asking.

Rob

### comment:11 in reply to:  9 Changed 12 years ago by Rob Beezer

While we're at it, how about #9940?

This patch has code that is in pretty good shape (IMHO). It still needs doctests, plus things like an equality method. So it could fix #9440 if the equality method is done right?

### comment:12 Changed 12 years ago by Rob Beezer

Justin - no documentation to speak of, but look at the derived classes to get a feel for how this might work.

Any insights or ideas you might have would be helpful before I try to finish this off later this spring.

Rob

### comment:13 Changed 11 years ago by Rob Beezer

Draft 3 patch is actually about a year old at time of posting (for safe-keeping). Category code changed out from under me, so I had to start over last summer. This applies on 5.0.rc0, builds, and simple testing of the abstract classes seems to be successful.

Needs documentation, some changes, and practical derived classes, like totally abstract cyclic groups, the multiplicative subgroup of units mod n, etc. IIRC, there are examples of these in the previous drafts. I fully intend to work on this over the summer.

### comment:14 Changed 10 years ago by Rob Beezer

I keep plugging away at this. Some improvement by exploiting category code. Totally reworked, so most of my comments above are obsolete.

Draft 4 patch is very functional, with the following caveats that I cannot figure out. Assistance greatly appreciated if you can provide advice or specific pointers. There is quite a bit of functionality demonstrated in the module-level doctests. Little or no error-checking yet.

1. _element_constructor() works fine with module elements, which is to be expected, since it is copied verbatim from there. I cannot seem to make it accept reasonable elements of the parent of the generators for subsequent processing without totally breaking extensive doctests.
2. The multiplicative version does not pass the TestSuite framework. Likely the implementation of multiplicative operators on top of an additive class (FGP modules) is to blame?

I've tried to add copious comments to make it easier to navigate the code. More specific problem areas are flagged with *PROBLEM*.

### comment:15 Changed 10 years ago by Rob Beezer

Just replaced the patch. Realized the _user_to_optimized() method needed to be in the parent class, not the element class. Then had some partial success getting _element_constructor() to work, but it still fails on subgroups - .smith_form_gens() for FGP modules is the suspect.

Test suite on the elliptic curve example was testing the wrong instance - as corrected one test fails, so it is commented out, but should be experimented with to determine root cause.

### comment:16 Changed 10 years ago by Rob Beezer

draft-4 failed to include "init.py" in the patch - that has been corrected in draft-5.

David Roe helped me rework the initialization of the module class, so now the test suite is not doing additive tests on the multiplicative classes. And I also believe I understand the problems with the element constructor (again with David's help). So I think I'm over the hump on this one now.

Long list of tests at module level are all passing, except one test suite (which I think I understand and can correct). A few other test suites commented-out, but I think they are correctable also.

### comment:17 Changed 10 years ago by Rob Beezer

draft-6 patch is darn close to functional. Lots of doctests, all passing. Lots of code pushed up to abstract class. Much more to do on docstrings.

One real edit in FGP_Module code. Remainder are stray print statements to be cleaned up.

### comment:18 follow-up:  19 Changed 10 years ago by Alex Ghitza

Hi Rob,

Just a quick note to say that I've played with draft-6 a bit (mainly with the UnitsModmGroup), and I very much like it. Thanks for all the work you've put into this (and the patience!).

### comment:19 in reply to:  18 Changed 10 years ago by Rob Beezer

Just a quick note to say that I've played with draft-6 a bit (mainly with the UnitsModmGroup), and I very much like it. Thanks for all the work you've put into this (and the patience!).

Thanks very much, Alex, for the encouragement. Still lots of docstrings to work on, but making (slow) progress, since classes started recently. Soon. ;-)

### comment:20 Changed 10 years ago by Paul Zimmermann

any progress on this? Which info is needed?

Paul

### comment:21 Changed 9 years ago by Jeroen Demeyer

Milestone: sage-5.11 → sage-5.12

### comment:22 Changed 9 years ago by Rob Beezer

Update: v6 patch will compain about one hunk not applying - just ignore it, it is no longer needed.

On 5.12: compiles and passes all tests.

Basically I think the code is solid on this one, but it needs extensive work to fully document and doctest. And then it would be a big effort to slowly integrate in.

### comment:23 Changed 9 years ago by For batch modifications

Milestone: sage-6.1 → sage-6.2

### comment:24 Changed 9 years ago by For batch modifications

Milestone: sage-6.2 → sage-6.3

### comment:25 Changed 8 years ago by For batch modifications

Milestone: sage-6.3 → sage-6.4

### comment:26 follow-up:  27 Changed 8 years ago by Karl-Dieter Crisman

Hey Rob, what's the status here? If one (say, me) were to have a student who knows some algebra and is a solid programmer, could they finish up what is remaining? Could be really useful stuff.