Opened 7 years ago
Closed 6 years ago
#15247 closed enhancement (fixed)
Introduce a baseclass for singletons
Reported by:  SimonKing  Owned by:  

Priority:  major  Milestone:  sage6.4 
Component:  performance  Keywords:  
Cc:  nthiery, nbruin, novoselt  Merged in:  
Authors:  Simon King  Reviewers:  Marc Mezzarobba, Travis Scrimshaw, Nicolas M. Thiéry 
Report Upstream:  N/A  Work issues:  
Branch:  aa9821e (Commits)  Commit:  aa9821ecb389908ce84b69735ead32bf871bdd4f 
Dependencies:  Stopgaps: 
Description
Since some while, we have sage.categories.category_singleton.Category_singleton
. A singleton is a class that allows the creation of exactly one instance (of any subclass). The technical implementa
tion of Category_singleton
is roughly like this: In some static __classcall__
, test that the given class is a direct subclass of Category_singleton
; then create a (the) instance of the class;
then set the override the classcall of this class and of the class of the instance (which might be a subclass) by a constant function returning the instance.
I suggest to provide this construction scheme generally, in sage.misc.fast_methods.SingletonClass
. The idea is: If one write a class inheriting from SingletonClass
then one does not need to think about caching the unique instance or writing a fast hash or writing fast comparison, since this will all be inherited from SingletonClass
.
I suggest to use it at least on the rational field, which currently has a custom cache, and its hash method is written in Python.
With the branch that I am going to add, I get
sage: %timeit RationalField() 1000000 loops, best of 3: 269 ns per loop sage: %timeit hash(QQ) 10000000 loops, best of 3: 134 ns per loop sage: %timeit QQ==ZZ 10000000 loops, best of 3: 144 ns per loop
With vanilla sage5.12.b5, it is a lot slower:
sage: %timeit RationalField() 10000 loops, best of 3: 82.4 us per loop sage: %timeit hash(QQ) 1000000 loops, best of 3: 496 ns per loop sage: %timeit QQ==ZZ 1000000 loops, best of 3: 878 ns per loop
Change History (45)
comment:1 Changed 7 years ago by
 Branch set to u/SimonKing/ticket/15247
 Created changed from 10/01/13 22:42:26 to 10/01/13 22:42:26
 Modified changed from 10/01/13 22:42:26 to 10/01/13 22:42:26
comment:2 Changed 7 years ago by
comment:3 Changed 7 years ago by
 Commit set to add22e67c8eddafc7097aee8ee1b6883596a8a89
Branch pushed to git repo; I updated commit sha1. New commits:
[changeset:add22e6]  Add tests for SingletonClass? 
comment:4 Changed 7 years ago by
 Status changed from new to needs_review
I did not run make ptest yet, but I have added tests for the new SingletonClass
and hence change the ticket into "needs review".
comment:5 Changed 7 years ago by
It will be needed to change the expected output of several hash functions in the tests, as the hash of QQ is changed object.__hash__(QQ)
with my branch.
comment:6 followup: ↓ 7 Changed 7 years ago by
Oops, and much worse: It seems that I forgot to think about unpickling old pickles of QQ!
comment:7 in reply to: ↑ 6 Changed 7 years ago by
Replying to SimonKing:
Oops, and much worse: It seems that I forgot to think about unpickling old pickles of QQ!
I stand corrected: THIS seems to work. But the pickle jar broke.
comment:8 followup: ↓ 24 Changed 7 years ago by
 Status changed from needs_review to needs_work
I have now clue what is going wrong here.
I tested saving a rational number in vanilla sage, and I could read the pickle after rebuilding Sage with my branch. However, it seems that some old pickles in the pickle jar manage to create a version of the integer ring without calling its __init__
. This could be accomplished by directly calling __new__
. But is this really done somewhere?
comment:9 followup: ↓ 10 Changed 7 years ago by
comment:10 in reply to: ↑ 9 ; followup: ↓ 11 Changed 7 years ago by
Replying to nthiery:
I won't have time to review this ticket, but I am all +1 on progress on this direction. Just one thing: the priority is not as high than #10963, and the two patches are likely to conflict with each other,
Why? My branch touches sage.misc.fast_methods
and sage.rings.rational_field
and nothing else. I do not aim (yet!) at changing Category_singleton
, although it would make sense in the long run (i.e., after #10963.
comment:11 in reply to: ↑ 10 Changed 7 years ago by
Replying to SimonKing:
Why? My branch touches
sage.misc.fast_methods
andsage.rings.rational_field
and nothing else. I do not aim (yet!) at changingCategory_singleton
, although it would make sense in the long run (i.e., after #10963.
Ah, ok, perfect! Double +1 on this ticket then. Well, as long as it does not eat up review time from you on #10963 :)
comment:12 Changed 7 years ago by
 Commit changed from add22e67c8eddafc7097aee8ee1b6883596a8a89 to 44de39272977327c5a6b248dc2bc0f54a36db382
Branch pushed to git repo; I updated commit sha1. New commits:
[changeset:44de392]  Add Rational.new, to make ancient pickles readable 
comment:13 Changed 7 years ago by
 Status changed from needs_work to needs_review
I did not run make ptest yet, but at least the new commit makes unpickle_all() work.
comment:14 Changed 7 years ago by
 Status changed from needs_review to needs_work
 Work issues set to update hash values in tests
Oops, I forgot: Some hash values are to be updated as well.
comment:15 Changed 7 years ago by
Nice finding: One of the hash tests was in fact wrong, because it was a test for the hash of a different class!
I am about to fix this now, by testing against the definition of the respective hash functions. So, I am not testing against the result on 64bit and 32 bit machines, since such tests don't seem meaningful to me.
comment:16 Changed 7 years ago by
 Commit changed from 44de39272977327c5a6b248dc2bc0f54a36db382 to 86d2b6417e5e4814b2a61cb510edef32a5a3b08c
Branch pushed to git repo; I updated commit sha1. New commits:
[changeset:86d2b64]  Fix the hash value doctests of Heegner points 
comment:17 Changed 7 years ago by
 Status changed from needs_work to needs_review
 Work issues update hash values in tests deleted
Now I am confident that the tests will work, and that the branch is ready for review.
comment:18 Changed 7 years ago by
 Status changed from needs_review to needs_work
 Work issues set to fixs more hash values
comment:19 Changed 7 years ago by
There are even more tests that test against the hash value of an instance of the wrong class!
comment:20 Changed 7 years ago by
 Commit changed from 86d2b6417e5e4814b2a61cb510edef32a5a3b08c to 26132d9f30e881fc75a3bae60c8e526a6e4fef9f
Branch pushed to git repo; I updated commit sha1. New commits:
[changeset:26132d9]  Fix several more hash tests 
comment:21 followup: ↓ 23 Changed 7 years ago by
 Status changed from needs_work to needs_review
 Work issues fixs more hash values deleted
There were several hash tests to fix. In all cases, I stopped comparing against a particular number, because
 the number depends on the architecture (32 versus 64bit)
 the number does not show how the hash function works
 one should test the result of
hash
against the hash function of the class being testedotherwise (and this happened in at least three examples) one might test an instance of the wrong class.
The tests should work now.
comment:22 Changed 7 years ago by
 Commit changed from 26132d9f30e881fc75a3bae60c8e526a6e4fef9f to 848952746e60990b25a0cf013081f5fad4ffe6e3
Branch pushed to git repo; I updated commit sha1. New commits:
[changeset:8489527]  Use "sorted" in one test on sets 
comment:23 in reply to: ↑ 21 Changed 7 years ago by
Replying to SimonKing:
The tests should work now.
All but one test worked. The failing test was testing against the order of elements of a set. The obvious solution was to use "sorted" in the example. Hence, with the branch that I updated a minute ago, all tests pass for me.
comment:24 in reply to: ↑ 8 Changed 7 years ago by
Replying to SimonKing:
However, it seems that some old pickles in the pickle jar manage to create a version of the integer ring without calling its
__init__
. This could be accomplished by directly calling__new__
. But is this really done somewhere?
I'm not sure I understand what you mean: isn't that (calling __new__
but not __init__
) how unpickling works in general?
comment:25 followup: ↓ 32 Changed 7 years ago by
 Branch changed from u/SimonKing/ticket/15247 to u/mmezzarobba/15247singleton_class
 Commit changed from 848952746e60990b25a0cf013081f5fad4ffe6e3 to 207f6b72c0dc4601732c5ca0ee722c4c43c95709
 Reviewers set to Marc Mezzarobba
 I am a little bit skeptical about tying the singleton behaviour to comparison by identity if
SingletonClass
is meant to be the way to implement singleton classes. Indeed, this makes it virtually unusable for Elements as long as sage keeps abusing==
to implement semantic (as opposed to syntaxic) equality. And singleton classes descending from Element have at leat one natural use case, namely wellknown constants (infinities, pi...). Could you please comment on this choice?  I don't like having the same explanations and/or tests repeated in several docstrings. I tried to remove redundancies in c5acb88a and 949b7b2aa. But feel free to revert these commits if you disagree!
 The same goes for 207f6b72, where I applied
SingletonClass
to other parents (initially to check how usable it was in practice, but since it's done...).  Finally, I made a few minor changes in d9ca799c. Could you please check that none of the things I "fixed" was intentional?
New commits:
d9ca799  SingletonClass: cosmetic changes.

c5acb88  SingletonClass: Less redundant docstrings

949b7b2  QQ/SingletonClass: Delete redundant doctest

4123a50  Merge in '6.1.rc0' to prevent whitespace conflicts

207f6b7  Make QQbar, AA, and PariRing 'SingletonClass'es

comment:26 Changed 7 years ago by
 Milestone changed from sage6.1 to sage6.2
comment:27 Changed 7 years ago by
 Branch changed from u/mmezzarobba/15247singleton_class to u/mmezzarobba/15247singleton_classrebased
 Commit changed from 207f6b72c0dc4601732c5ca0ee722c4c43c95709 to a431dadc789f4f519468c3c678937d4fde30e3af
comment:28 Changed 7 years ago by
 Milestone changed from sage6.2 to sage6.3
comment:29 Changed 7 years ago by
 Status changed from needs_review to needs_work
 Work issues set to rebase
comment:30 Changed 7 years ago by
 Commit changed from a431dadc789f4f519468c3c678937d4fde30e3af to dfbb8bba4a90b1bc30cd33199c9eee9655d8fc95
Branch pushed to git repo; I updated commit sha1. This was a forced push. Last 10 new commits:
0f900b9  Use WithEqualityById on SingletonClass, replace QQ.__hash__

159daaa  Add tests for SingletonClass

a9d0e5a  Add Rational.__new__, to make ancient pickles readable

61ab8c8  Fix the hash value doctests of Heegner points

5c1d17b  Fix several more hash tests

4969e24  Use "sorted" in one test on sets

a2f369d  SingletonClass: cosmetic changes.

59aea3c  SingletonClass: Less redundant docstrings

765b281  QQ/SingletonClass: Delete redundant doctest

dfbb8bb  Make QQbar, AA, and PariRing 'SingletonClass'es

comment:31 Changed 7 years ago by
 Status changed from needs_work to needs_review
 Work issues rebase deleted
rebased (not fully tested yet, but seems to work)
Last 10 new commits:
0f900b9  Use WithEqualityById on SingletonClass, replace QQ.__hash__

159daaa  Add tests for SingletonClass

a9d0e5a  Add Rational.__new__, to make ancient pickles readable

61ab8c8  Fix the hash value doctests of Heegner points

5c1d17b  Fix several more hash tests

4969e24  Use "sorted" in one test on sets

a2f369d  SingletonClass: cosmetic changes.

59aea3c  SingletonClass: Less redundant docstrings

765b281  QQ/SingletonClass: Delete redundant doctest

dfbb8bb  Make QQbar, AA, and PariRing 'SingletonClass'es

comment:32 in reply to: ↑ 25 ; followup: ↓ 33 Changed 7 years ago by
 Branch changed from u/mmezzarobba/15247singleton_classrebased to public/singleton_class15247
 Commit changed from dfbb8bba4a90b1bc30cd33199c9eee9655d8fc95 to 0d78737de4a8f364903da0998f02fc9e803c2b0f
 Reviewers changed from Marc Mezzarobba to Marc Mezzarobba, Travis Scrimshaw
Perhaps Simon can comment at some point, but here are my thoughts.
Replying to mmezzarobba:
 I am a little bit skeptical about tying the singleton behaviour to comparison by identity if
SingletonClass
is meant to be the way to implement singleton classes. Indeed, this makes it virtually unusable for Elements as long as sage keeps abusing==
to implement semantic (as opposed to syntaxic) equality. And singleton classes descending from Element have at leat one natural use case, namely wellknown constants (infinities, pi...). Could you please comment on this choice?
I would say this is okay as you can always override __eq__
as necessary, and python's default is to do equality check by id.
 I don't like having the same explanations and/or tests repeated in several docstrings. I tried to remove redundancies in c5acb88a and 949b7b2aa. But feel free to revert these commits if you disagree!
I moved the pickling test to the classlevel doc in order to make it more visible.
 The same goes for 207f6b72, where I applied
SingletonClass
to other parents (initially to check how usable it was in practice, but since it's done...). Finally, I made a few minor changes in d9ca799c. Could you please check that none of the things I "fixed" was intentional?
I think they were typos.
I've also made some other misc review changes. However I have a question, should this be in sage/misc
or in sage/structure
since it feels more like a structural piece of Sage? Otherwise I'm happy with the current state of things (and found similar speedups).
New commits:
4ad8e71  Merge branch 'u/mmezzarobba/15247singleton_classrebased' of trac.sagemath.org:sage into public/structure/singleton_class15247

0d78737  Some review changes for #15247.

comment:33 in reply to: ↑ 32 ; followup: ↓ 35 Changed 7 years ago by
Replying to tscrim:
Perhaps Simon can comment at some point, but here are my thoughts.
Well, at some point I should perhaps look at the code/doc again...
I've also made some other misc review changes. However I have a question, should this be in
sage/misc
or insage/structure
since it feels more like a structural piece of Sage?
At #15820 we had a similar discussion, and Nicolas has convinced me with the following: If the structure being implemented is Sagespecific (examples: elements, parents) then it goes into sage.structure. If the structure being implemented would make sense outside of Sage, then it goes into sage.misc (examples: classcall metaclass, sequences of bounded integers as in #15820).
And I'd say that a singleton baseclass makes sense outside of Sage, hence, should go into sage.misc.
comment:34 Changed 6 years ago by
 Commit changed from 0d78737de4a8f364903da0998f02fc9e803c2b0f to 391421e37fd4391227aab94b00c447c1a6945bb2
Branch pushed to git repo; I updated commit sha1. New commits:
391421e  Merge branch 'public/singleton_class15247' of trac.sagemath.org:sage into public/singleton_class15247

comment:35 in reply to: ↑ 33 Changed 6 years ago by
Replying to SimonKing:
At #15820 we had a similar discussion, and Nicolas has convinced me with the following: If the structure being implemented is Sagespecific (examples: elements, parents) then it goes into sage.structure. If the structure being implemented would make sense outside of Sage, then it goes into sage.misc (examples: classcall metaclass, sequences of bounded integers as in #15820).
Thanks for reminding me of that (and sorry, I let this ticket slip of my radar); Nicolas told me at one time but I couldn't remember which when where.
And I'd say that a singleton baseclass makes sense outside of Sage, hence, should go into sage.misc.
I agree.
Rebased and we just need a little bit more review.
comment:36 Changed 6 years ago by
 Commit changed from 391421e37fd4391227aab94b00c447c1a6945bb2 to 3e9e736a9fbe164d07a2ce1d58efdc3e5b2a49ab
Branch pushed to git repo; I updated commit sha1. New commits:
3e9e736  Fix merge error

comment:37 Changed 6 years ago by
 Milestone changed from sage6.3 to sage6.4
comment:38 Changed 6 years ago by
ping
Could someone just review my change 0d78737
? I've given a positive review to everything else.
comment:39 Changed 6 years ago by
I just had a look at 0d78737, and it looks good to me.
I would have two semiunrelated suggestions though:
 Maybe rename the class to
Singleton
rather thanSingletonClass
: then the name of the class will describe, as is usual, what its instances are, rather than the class itself.
 For the test that is modified in 0d78737: make the inheritance explicit by creating a subclasss rather than trigerring such an inheritance through a call to _refine_category.
Thanks!
Cheers,
Nicolas
comment:40 Changed 6 years ago by
 Commit changed from 3e9e736a9fbe164d07a2ce1d58efdc3e5b2a49ab to 3bd5ae067804742cc7e2f47b4e5575699a2f69d1
Branch pushed to git repo; I updated commit sha1. New commits:
3bd5ae0  Merge branch 'public/singleton_class15247' of trac.sagemath.org:sage into public/singleton_class15247

comment:41 Changed 6 years ago by
Done and done.
comment:42 Changed 6 years ago by
 Commit changed from 3bd5ae067804742cc7e2f47b4e5575699a2f69d1 to aa9821ecb389908ce84b69735ead32bf871bdd4f
Branch pushed to git repo; I updated commit sha1. New commits:
aa9821e  Changes from Nicolas' suggestions.

comment:43 Changed 6 years ago by
 Reviewers changed from Marc Mezzarobba, Travis Scrimshaw to Marc Mezzarobba, Travis Scrimshaw, Nicolas M. Thiéry
 Status changed from needs_review to positive_review
Thank you Travis! I double checked your changes, hence positive review.
comment:44 Changed 6 years ago by
Thank you Nicolas. Also thank you Simon and Marc for your work on this.
comment:45 Changed 6 years ago by
 Branch changed from public/singleton_class15247 to aa9821ecb389908ce84b69735ead32bf871bdd4f
 Resolution set to fixed
 Status changed from positive_review to closed
It is not "needs review" yet, but I guess it only needs test coverage for the new class.