Opened 10 years ago
Last modified 3 months ago
#13447 needs_work defect
Make libsingular multivariate polynomial rings collectable
Reported by:  Nils Bruin  Owned by:  

Priority:  major  Milestone:  sage9.8 
Component:  memleak  Keywords:  
Cc:  Simon King, Martin Albrecht, Volker Braun, Martin von Gagern, Robert Bradshaw, ylchapuy, JeanPierre Flori, Burcin Erocal  Merged in:  
Authors:  Simon King  Reviewers:  Travis Scrimshaw 
Report Upstream:  N/A  Work issues:  
Branch:  public/make_libsingular_multivariate_polynomial_rings_collectable (Commits, GitHub, GitLab)  Commit:  b4df239ee6d7d9540263108d5c4230822e1f1b5e 
Dependencies:  #11521  Stopgaps: 
Description (last modified by )
Presently, #715 + #11521 help not permanently keeping parent in memory. In the process we uncovered a hardbutconsistently triggerable problem with the collection of MPolynomialRing_libsingular
. We have only observed the problem on bsd.math.washington.edu
, MacOSX 10.6 on x86_64.
The present workaround is to permanently store references to these upon creation, thus preventing collection. It would be nice if we could properly solve the problem (or at least establish that the problem is specific to bsd.math
)
Attachments (7)
Change History (177)
comment:1 Changed 10 years ago by
comment:2 Changed 10 years ago by
Summary:  Make libsindular multivariate polynomial rings collectable → Make libsingular multivariate polynomial rings collectable 

comment:3 Changed 10 years ago by
OK, I did a little experiment and tried to build singular with plain malloc rather than omalloc. In principle, omalloc has an withemulate...
flag, but the API offered in that mode is woefully incomplete for singular use. I tried to extend it a little. Very rough result:
http://sage.math.washington.edu/home/nbruin/singular315.malloc.spkg
One problem is supplying a memdup
, which needs to know the size of an allocated block from its pointer. On BSD, you can use malloc_size
for that. On linux one could use malloc_usable_size
. The rest is a whole swath of routines that need to be supplied.
The package above is very dirty, but on bsd.math it did provide me with an apparently working libsingular. The singular executable produced didn't seem usable, so keep your old one!
The doctest passes! Not exactly what we were hoping for, but it does make a doublefree unlikely. That would have been detected. Corruption after freeing could still be possible, since malloc
allocates way bigger blocks, so freelist data is likely missed.
There is of course also the possibility of some routine writing out of bounds, which is less likely to trigger problems with malloc too.
Singular people might be interested in incorporating the changes to omalloc (and preferrably extend them a little bit) so that withemulate...
becomes a viable option for Singular debugging. Then you can valgrind singular code.
comment:4 Changed 10 years ago by
Cc:  Simon King added 

comment:5 Changed 10 years ago by
Report Upstream:  N/A → Reported upstream. No feedback yet. 

I have contacted Hans Schönemann.
comment:6 followup: 7 Changed 10 years ago by
Cc:  Martin Albrecht added 

I think Martin should be Cc for this as well.
I am not sure if changing to malloc is an acceptable option for Singular. If I understand correctly, omalloc is very important for having a good performance in Gröbner basis computations.
comment:7 Changed 10 years ago by
Replying to SimonKing:
I am not sure if changing to malloc is an acceptable option for Singular.
I am sure it is not acceptable for production, but being able to swap out omalloc for debugging can be very useful. That's why I tried. I understand that there are great tools to do memory management debugging and omalloc puts them all out of play because it hides all memory alloc/free activity.
It seems omalloc has its own tools but I wasn't able to get them working, I've seen indications that they don't work on 64 bits, and there's a good chance they're not as good as the general ones because they're for a smaller market.
I'm sure someone more familiar with the Singular and omalloc code bases can make a more informed decision on whether having the option of straight malloc memory management for debugging is worthwhile. My initial finding is that it quite likely can be done with relatively small modifications. I got it to more or less work in an evening, while being unfamiliar with the code.
comment:8 followup: 9 Changed 10 years ago by
At least the problem is a real one. I've found a similar iMac:
Hardware Overview: Model Name: iMac Model Identifier: iMac10,1 Processor Name: Intel Core 2 Duo Processor Speed: 3.06 GHz Number Of Processors: 1 Total Number Of Cores: 2 L2 Cache: 3 MB Memory: 4 GB Bus Speed: 1.07 GHz Boot ROM Version: IM101.00CC.B00 SMC Version (system): 1.52f9 System Software Overview: System Version: Mac OS X 10.6.8 (10K549) Kernel Version: Darwin 10.8.0 64bit Kernel and Extensions: No Time since boot: 5 days 8:46
and bsd.math.washington.edu
:
Hardware Overview: Model Name: Mac Pro Model Identifier: MacPro5,1 Processor Name: QuadCore Intel Xeon Processor Speed: 2.4 GHz Number Of Processors: 2 Total Number Of Cores: 8 L2 Cache (per core): 256 KB L3 Cache (per processor): 12 MB Memory: 32 GB Processor Interconnect Speed: 5.86 GT/s Boot ROM Version: MP51.007F.B03 SMC Version (system): 1.39f11 SMC Version (processor tray): 1.39f11 System Software Overview: System Version: Mac OS X 10.6.8 (10K549) Kernel Version: Darwin 10.8.0 64bit Kernel and Extensions: Yes Time since boot: 16 days 6:14
Both these machines exhibit the same problem that on 5.4b0 + #715 + #11521, the doctest for cachefunc.pyx
segfaults in the same spot.
Note that the iMac claims to not have a 64bit kernel. Sage is compiled to be 64bit on that machine, though (and seems to work).
Have we actually established that this bug does not occur on newer OSX versions?
comment:9 followup: 10 Changed 10 years ago by
Replying to nbruin:
Have we actually established that this bug does not occur on newer OSX versions?
And have we actually established that this problem does not occur with older Singular versions? I am not totally sure, but I think the problem with #715+#11521 first emerged in sage5.4.beta0, when Singular315 was merged.
comment:10 Changed 10 years ago by
Replying to SimonKing:
And have we actually established that this problem does not occur with older Singular versions?
Quoting from comment:1
I have tried and the problem seems to persist with the old singular (5.4b0 has a recently upgraded singular).
In the mean time, a bit of googling led me to OSX's "GuardMalloc?". While sage+singularmalloc
does not crash on the doctest, it does crash when run with
export DYLD_INSERT_LIBRARIES=/usr/lib/libgmalloc.dylib
Since gmalloc is a memory manager that places each allocation on its own page with protected/unmapped memory as close as possible around the block and that unmaps the block as soon as freed (I'm just parroting the manpage), a segfault is likely due to an accessafterfree or accessoutofbounds  the one that would normally cause the corruption and then the segfault much later. (that's the whole idea of replacing omalloc  I don't think it's doable to get omalloc to segfault on an accessafterfree). This all comes at a significant speed penalty of course, so experiments are painful and I wouldn't even be able to interpret the backtrace/coredump if I got it (I'd hope that the gmallocinduced segfault would be reproducible in gdb). It would really be useful if the test file would be pared down to an absolute minimum. That's basically just a backtracking search on which elements can be removed while still triggering a segfault.
However, I think this is a strong indication that there is a real memory violation at the base of this and that it is tracable.
comment:11 followup: 12 Changed 10 years ago by
I tried to track the problem as follows:

sage/libs/singular/ring.pyx
diff git a/sage/libs/singular/ring.pyx b/sage/libs/singular/ring.pyx
a b 16 16 17 17 include "../../ext/stdsage.pxi" 18 18 19 import sys 20 19 21 from sage.libs.gmp.types cimport __mpz_struct 20 22 from sage.libs.gmp.mpz cimport mpz_init_set_ui, mpz_init_set 21 23 … … 495 497 cdef object r = wrap_ring(existing_ring) 496 498 refcount = ring_refcount_dict.pop(r) 497 499 ring_refcount_dict[r] = refcount+1 500 sys.stderr.write("reference %d to %d, wrapper %d\n"%(refcount+1,<size_t>existing_ring, id(r))) 501 sys.stderr.flush() 498 502 return existing_ring 499 503 500 504 … … 536 540 537 541 cdef ring_wrapper_Py r = wrap_ring(doomed) 538 542 refcount = ring_refcount_dict.pop(r) 543 sys.stderr.write("dereference level %d of %d, wrapper %d\n"%(refcount1,<size_t>doomed, id(r))) 544 sys.stderr.flush() 539 545 if refcount > 1: 540 546 ring_refcount_dict[r] = refcount1 541 547 return 
sage/rings/polynomial/multi_polynomial_libsingular.pyx
diff git a/sage/rings/polynomial/multi_polynomial_libsingular.pyx b/sage/rings/polynomial/multi_polynomial_libsingular.pyx
a b 151 151 sage: bj*c 152 152 b  1728*c 153 153 """ 154 import sys 154 155 155 156 # The Singular API is as follows: 156 157 # … … 242 243 243 244 import sage.libs.pari.gen 244 245 import polynomial_element 245 246 from sage.libs.singular.ring cimport wrap_ring 246 247 cdef class MPolynomialRing_libsingular(MPolynomialRing_generic): 247 248 248 249 def __cinit__(self): … … 364 365 from sage.rings.polynomial.polynomial_element import PolynomialBaseringInjection 365 366 base_inject = PolynomialBaseringInjection(base_ring, self) 366 367 self.register_coercion(base_inject) 368 sys.stderr.write("At %d, creating %s\n"%(<size_t>self._ring, self)) 369 sys.stderr.flush() 367 370 368 371 def __dealloc__(self): 369 372 r""" … … 390 393 sage: _ = gc.collect() 391 394 """ 392 395 if self._ring != NULL: # the constructor did not raise an exception 396 from sage.libs.singular.ring import ring_refcount_dict 397 try: 398 level = ring_refcount_dict[wrap_ring(self._ring)] 399 except KeyError: 400 level = 1 401 if level > 1: 402 sys.stderr.write("WARNING: %d\n"%(<size_t>self._ring)) 403 else: 404 sys.stderr.write("__dealloc__: %s\n"%(<size_t>self._ring)) 405 sys.stderr.flush() 393 406 singular_ring_delete(self._ring) 394 407 395 408 def __copy__(self):
Then, I ran python t
on the segfaulting test. Observation: It happens precisely twice that "WARNING" is printed, i.e., the __dealloc__
method is called even though there remain multiple references to the underlying libsingular ring.
In both cases it is QQ['a','b','c','d']
. Here is a snipped from the output:
reference 2 to 4409548912, wrapper 4302568952 reference 3 to 4409548912, wrapper 4302569000 reference 4 to 4409548912, wrapper 4302568952 At 4409548912, creating Multivariate Polynomial Ring in a, b, c, d over Rational Field reference 5 to 4409548912, wrapper 4302569000 reference 6 to 4409548912, wrapper 4302568952 reference 7 to 4409548912, wrapper 4302569000 reference 8 to 4409548912, wrapper 4302568952 reference 9 to 4409548912, wrapper 4302569000 reference 10 to 4409548912, wrapper 4302568952 reference 2 to 4409549416, wrapper 4302568928 reference 3 to 4409549416, wrapper 4302569000 dereference level 9 of 4409548912, wrapper 4302568928 dereference level 8 of 4409548912, wrapper 4302568952 dereference level 7 of 4409548912, wrapper 4302568928 dereference level 6 of 4409548912, wrapper 4302568952 dereference level 5 of 4409548912, wrapper 4302568928 dereference level 4 of 4409548912, wrapper 4302568952 dereference level 3 of 4409548912, wrapper 4302568928 WARNING: 4409548912 dereference level 2 of 4409548912, wrapper 4302568952 dereference level 1 of 4409548912, wrapper 4302568928 dereference level 0 of 4409548912, wrapper 4302568952
However, I am not totally sure whether this indicates a problem, because in both cases the remaining references are immediately removed. Also, it is always the case that 4 references are set to the libsingular ring before actually creating the polynomial ring in Sage.
One last observation: You may notice a libsingular ring at address 4409549416 that is referenced here as well, aparently in the middle of the construction of QQ['a','b','c','d']
. It is later used for QQ['x','y','z']
. The last report before the segfault is
reference 32 to 4409549416, wrapper 4302568952
Seems like a wildgoose chase to me, though.
comment:12 Changed 10 years ago by
Replying to SimonKing:
One last observation: You may notice a libsingular ring at address 4409549416 that is referenced here as well, aparently in the middle of the construction of
QQ['a','b','c','d']
. It is later used forQQ['x','y','z']
. The last report before the segfault isreference 32 to 4409549416, wrapper 4302568952
And this ring is in fact currRing
when it crashes.
comment:13 Changed 10 years ago by
OK! good progress. Instrumenting sagedoc.py
a little bit we can indeed see the order in which the doctests are executed:
__main__ __main__.change_warning_output __main__.check_with_tolerance __main__.example_0 __main__.example_1 __main__.example_10 __main__.example_11 __main__.example_12 __main__.example_13 __main__.example_14 __main__.example_15 __main__.example_16 __main__.example_17 __main__.example_18 __main__.example_19 __main__.example_2 __main__.example_20 __main__.example_21 __main__.example_22 __main__.example_23 __main__.example_24 __main__.example_25 __main__.example_26 __main__.example_27 Unhandled SIGSEGV
so that indeed seems to be alphabetical order.
Now let's run the doctests with singularusingmalloc. Result: No segfault. OSX comes with gmalloc
, which is a guarded malloc for debugging purposes. It places every allocation on a separate page and unmaps that page upon freeing. So, any accessafterfree leads to a segfault. Now we do get a segfault and it happens a lot sooner than example_27
. In fact, now the segfault survives in gdb
. The error happens when executing
G = I.groebner_basis()###line 921:_sage_ >>> G = I.groebner_basis()
Here's a session with gdb
once the segfault has happened. I think I have been able to extract enough data to point at the probably problem.
Program received signal EXC_BAD_ACCESS, Could not access memory. Reason: KERN_INVALID_ADDRESS at address: 0x00000001850dbf44 __pyx_f_4sage_4libs_8singular_8function_call_function (__pyx_v_self=0x190ab8960, __pyx_v_args=0x190a8e810, __pyx_v_R=0x19c39be70, __pyx_optional_args=<value temporarily unavailable, due to optimizations>) at sage/libs/singular/function.cpp:13253 13253 currRingHdl>data.uring>ref = (currRingHdl>data.uring>ref  1); ####NB: This is line 1410 in sage/libs/singular/function.pyx (gdb) print currRingHdl $1 = (idhdl) 0x17c2b5fd0 (gdb) print currRingHdl>data $2 = { i = 2062696816, uring = 0x1850dbe90, p = 0x1850dbe90, n = 0x1850dbe90, uideal = 0x1850dbe90, umap = 0x1850dbe90, umatrix = 0x1850dbe90, ustring = 0x1850dbe90 <Address 0x1850dbe90 out of bounds>, iv = 0x1850dbe90, bim = 0x1850dbe90, l = 0x1850dbe90, li = 0x1850dbe90, pack = 0x1850dbe90, pinf = 0x1850dbe90 } (gdb) print currRingHdl>data.uring $3 = (ring) 0x1850dbe90 (gdb) print currRingHdl>data.uring>ref Cannot access memory at address 0x1850dbf44 (gdb) print *__pyx_v_si_ring $10 = { idroot = 0x0, order = 0x19c3cbff0, block0 = 0x19c3cdff0, block1 = 0x19c3cfff0, parameter = 0x0, minpoly = 0x0, minideal = 0x0, wvhdl = 0x19c3c9fe0, names = 0x19c3bdfe0, ordsgn = 0x19c3ddfe0, typ = 0x19c3dffd0, NegWeightL_Offset = 0x0, VarOffset = 0x19c3d9ff0, qideal = 0x0, firstwv = 0x0, PolyBin = 0x104ee8440, ringtype = 0, ringflaga = 0x0, ringflagb = 0, nr2mModul = 0, nrnModul = 0x0, options = 100663424, ch = 0, ref = 0, float_len = 0, float_len2 = 0, N = 3, P = 0, OrdSgn = 1, firstBlockEnds = 3, real_var_start = 0, real_var_end = 0, isLPring = 0, VectorOut = 0, ShortOut = 0, CanShortOut = 1, LexOrder = 0, MixedOrder = 0, ComponentOrder = 1, ExpL_Size = 3, CmpL_Size = 3, VarL_Size = 1, BitsPerExp = 20, ExpPerLong = 3, pCompIndex = 2, pOrdIndex = 0, OrdSize = 1, VarL_LowIndex = 1, MinExpPerLong = 3, NegWeightL_Size = 0, VarL_Offset = 0x19c3e3ff0, bitmask = 1048575, divmask = 1152922604119523329, p_Procs = 0x19c3e7f80, pFDeg = 0x104a80150 <pDeg(spolyrec*, sip_sring*)>, pLDeg = 0x104a80920 <pLDegb(spolyrec*, int*, sip_sring*)>, pFDegOrig = 0x104a80150 <pDeg(spolyrec*, sip_sring*)>, pLDegOrig = 0x104a80920 <pLDegb(spolyrec*, int*, sip_sring*)>, p_Setm = 0x104a7ff40 <p_Setm_TotalDegree(spolyrec*, sip_sring*)>, cf = 0x11e487e70, algring = 0x0, _nc = 0x0 } (gdb) print __pyx_v_si_ring $11 = (ip_sring *) 0x19c3c5e90 (gdb) print ((struct __pyx_obj_4sage_5rings_10polynomial_28multi_polynomial_libsingular_MPolynomialRing_libsingular *)__pyx_v_R)>_ring $12 = (ip_sring *) 0x19c3c5e90 (gdb) print ((struct __pyx_obj_4sage_5rings_10polynomial_6plural_NCPolynomialRing_plural *)__pyx_v_R)>_ring $13 = (ip_sring *) 0x10019ff30 ####NB: so PY_TYPE_CHECK(R, MPolynomialRing_libsingular) is true (gdb) print (__pyx_v_si_ring != currRing) $15 = false ####NB: does this mean that rChangeCurrRing(si_ring) got executed or that si_ring already equalled currRing? (gdb) print (currRingHdl>data.uring != currRing) $16 = true ####NB: of course, that's why we segfault on the statement that follows: ####NB: currRingHdl.data.uring.ref = 1 (gdb) print *(currRingHdl>data.uring) Cannot access memory at address 0x1850dbe90 ####NB: It looks like currRingHdl.data.uring has been unbound. ####NB: naturally, changing a field on that pointer will corrupt memory (or in this case ####NB: because gmalloc has unmapped the page, cause a segfault) ####NB: Could it be that the code here should really test for uring being still valid? ####NB: (if it can do that at all)?
So I think the issue is in sage.lib.singular.function.call_function
:
... if currRingHdl.data.uring!= currRing: currRingHdl.data.uring.ref = 1 currRingHdl.data.uring = currRing # ref counting? currRingHdl.data.uring.ref += 1 ...
The evidence points absolutely to currRingHdl.data.uring
pointing to unallocated (probably freed) memory. The access then of course can have all kinds of effects. At this point it is probably doable for a LibSingular
expert to reason about the code whether uring
should always be valid at this point (I suspect not).
It looks suspicious to me that sage.libs.singular.ring.singular_ring_delete
does do a careful dance to zero out the currRing
variable but doesn't seem to care about currRngHdl
. I also find it worrying that there apparently is a refcount system right on the ring structures (as you can see above) and yet in singular_ring_delete
a separate refcounting dict is used. One would think the same refcounting system should be borrowed by singular_ring_new
and singular_ring_delete
. It looks to me the code above thinks that by increasing ...uring.ref
the reference is protected, but singular_ring_delete
doesn't seem to take into account this refcount. It could well be that I'm misinterpreting the code and that this is all perfectly safe, though.
Libsingular specialists: Keep in mind that in principle, singular code can get executed in rather awkward moments, possibly as part of cleanups of circular garbage and callbacks on weakref cleanup, where equality might be tested of objects that are soon to be deallocated themselves.
The fickleness of the bug is consistent with this condition arising during a cyclic garbage collection with just the right amount of junk around. That would make the occurrence of the bug depend on just about everything in memory. Or at least if you depend on the corruption leading to a segfault, it depends on which location exactly gets corrupted.
I think we might be getting close to a badge for debugging excellence here!
Changed 10 years ago by
Attachment:  trac_13447double_refcount.patch added 

take into account both refcount_dict and ring*.ref fields on deletion.
Changed 10 years ago by
Attachment:  trac_13447consolidated_refcount.patch added 

Consolidate two refcount systems (cruft not yet removed from patch)
comment:14 Changed 10 years ago by
OK, two independent patches. Either prevents the segfault. I may just have removed the symptom, but not the cause.
If I'm correctly understanding the problem, trac_13447consolidated_refcount.patch should be the preferred solution. However, my unfamiliarity with (lib)singular's intricacies might have caused an oversight somewhere. I think my interpretation is consistent with the use in sage.lib.singular.function.call_function
, which is my main source of inspiration.
If people agree, we can clean out the cruft remaining from the refcounting method implemented locally.
comment:15 Changed 10 years ago by
Status:  new → needs_info 

Work issues:  → Input from libsingular experts 
comment:16 Changed 10 years ago by
Cc:  Volker Braun Martin von Gagern added 

Description:  modified (diff) 
Replying to nbruin:
If I'm correctly understanding the problem, trac_13447consolidated_refcount.patch should be the preferred solution.
I didn't test the patch yet. However, it seems very straight forward to me: There already is a refcounting, and thus one should use it. I am Cc'ing Volker Braun and Martin von Gagern, the authors of #11339. Does trac_13447consolidated_refcount.patch make sense to you as well?
Keeping a double refcount (as with trac_13447double_refcount.patch seems suspicious to me.
Perhaps one should let the patchbots test it? Thus, I'll add this as dependency for #715, and for the patchbot:
Apply trac_13447consolidated_refcount.patch
PS: You really deserve a badge for debugging excellence! Do I understand correctly that the bug is not on the side of Singular? I'll inform Hans accordingly.
comment:17 Changed 10 years ago by
With the new refcounting, I think it could be that currRingHdl.data.uring
holds the last reference to a ring. In fact, it seems that was the source of the segfaults. If that reference is removed in call_function
, shouldn't we delete the ring? The naive solution
... currRingHdl.data.uring.ref = 1 if currRingHdl.data.uring.ref == 0: rDelete(currRingHdl.data.uring) currRingHdl.data.uring = currRing # ref counting? currRingHdl.data.uring.ref += 1 ...
seems to have no ill effect (I put a print statement there that did produce some output, so it does happen), but perhaps I'm overlooking something. Are there other places where references are liable to be lost?
comment:18 Changed 10 years ago by
For the record, the following tests fail:
sage t force_lib devel/sage/sage/libs/singular/ring.pyx # 6 doctests failed sage t force_lib devel/sage/sage/modular/modsym/ambient.py # 1 doctests failed sage t force_lib devel/sage/sage/rings/polynomial/multi_polynomial_libsingular.pyx # 1 doctests failed
with
$ hg qa trac_715_combined.patch trac_715_local_refcache.patch trac_715_safer.patch trac_715_specification.patch trac_11521_homset_weakcache_combined.patch trac_11521_callback.patch trac_13447consolidated_refcount.patch
So, not all is good, but almost...
comment:19 Changed 10 years ago by
I don't know if ring.ref
has any meaning to Singular. If we are indeed free to use that field for reference counting in Sage then I'm fine with trac_13447consolidated_refcount.patch
.
Upstream plans to get rid of the whole currRing
global variable eventually, for the record.
comment:20 followup: 22 Changed 10 years ago by
Two errors mentioned in comment:18 look (again) difficult.
The first one:
sage t force_lib devel/sage/sage/modular/modsym/ambient.py ********************************************************************** File "/scratch/sking/sage5.4.beta0/devel/sagemain/sage/modular/modsym/ambient.py", line 1351: sage: ModularSymbols(20,2).boundary_space().dimension() Expected: 6 Got: 0
Hence, the way how one refcounts libsingular rings influences the dimension of Hecke modules. Strange at least...
Note, however, that the value returned by the "dimension()" method above is not constant, because it only returns a lower bound (if I recall correctly) that is increased when one learns more about the Hecke module. Hence, it could very well be that ModularSymbols(20,2).boundary_space()
used to be cached but is now garbage collected, so that information on the dimension is lost.
The second error is apparently ignored and only printed to stderr:
sage t force_lib devel/sage/sage/rings/polynomial/multi_polynomial_ring.py [2.1 s] sage t force_lib devel/sage/sage/rings/polynomial/multi_polynomial.pyx [4.3 s] sage t force_lib devel/sage/sage/rings/polynomial/groebner_fan.py [7.8 s] sage t force_lib devel/sage/sage/rings/polynomial/multi_polynomial_libsingular.pyx Exception AttributeError: AttributeError('PolynomialRing_field_with_category' object has no attribute '_modulus',) in ignored Exception AttributeError: AttributeError('PolynomialRing_field_with_category' object has no attribute '_modulus',) in ignored ********************************************************************** File "/scratch/sking/sage5.4.beta0/devel/sagemain/sage/rings/polynomial/multi_polynomial_libsingular.pyx", line 409: sage: len(ring_refcount_dict) == n + 1 Expected: True Got: False ********************************************************************** 1 items had failures: 1 of 19 in __main__.example_4 ***Test Failed*** 1 failures. For whitespace errors, see the file /Users/SimonKing/.sage/tmp/bsd.math.washington.edu96119/multi_polynomial_libsingular_8098.py [4.2 s] sage t force_lib devel/sage/sage/rings/polynomial/multi_polynomial_ring_generic.pyx [2.3 s] sage t force_lib devel/sage/sage/rings/polynomial/polydict.pyx [2.0 s]
Since these were parallel tests, I can't tell were the ignored attribute errors actually came from.
comment:21 Changed 10 years ago by
PS: When consolidating refcounters, we must not forget #13145, which only got merged in sage5.4.beta1.
comment:22 followup: 23 Changed 10 years ago by
Replying to SimonKing:
sage t force_lib devel/sage/sage/modular/modsym/ambient.py ********************************************************************** File "/scratch/sking/sage5.4.beta0/devel/sagemain/sage/modular/modsym/ambient.py", line 1351: sage: ModularSymbols(20,2).boundary_space().dimension() Expected: 6 Got: 0
I have seen that error before, with other workarounds (and I think also with singularmalloc
), so if it's indeed only a lower bound, then sage has merely changed. It's not an error. If you're worried you can see where that dimension is computed and put a hard ref in the creation of the relevant object. If garbage collection is the cause of the observed amnesia, a hard ref should "solve" it. In that case you can just change the doctest answer.
The second error is apparently ignored and only printed to stderr:
Exception AttributeError: AttributeError('PolynomialRing_field_with_category' object has no attribute '_modulus',) in ignored Exception AttributeError: AttributeError('PolynomialRing_field_with_category' object has no attribute '_modulus',) in ignored
This is a worrisome error because it's fickle. One a linux x86_64 box, get this reliably in sage/rings/polynomial/multi_polynomial_libsingular.pyx
. When I let it print the lines it's doctesting I get:
set_random_seed(0L) change_warning_output(sys.stdout) F = GF(Integer(7)**Integer(2), names=('a',)); (a,) = F._first_ngens(1)###line 1913:_sage_ >>> F.<a> = GF(7^2) R = F['x, y']; (x, y,) = R._first_ngens(2)###line 1914:_sage_ >>> R.<x,y> = F[] p = a*x**Integer(2) + y + a**Integer(3); p###line 1915:_sage_ >>> p = a*x^2 + y + a^3; p q = copy(p)###line 1917:_sage_ >>> q = copy(p) p == q###line 1918:_sage_ >>> p == q p is q###line 1920:_sage_ >>> p is q lst = [p,q];###line 1922:_sage_ >>> lst = [p,q]; matrix(ZZ, Integer(2), Integer(2), lambda i,j: bool(lst[i]==lst[j]))###line 1923:_sage_ >>> matrix(ZZ, 2, 2, lambda i,j: bool(lst[i]==lst[j])) Exception AttributeError: AttributeError('PolynomialRing_field_with_category' object has no attribute '_modulus',) in ignored Exception AttributeError: AttributeError('PolynomialRing_field_with_category' object has no attribute '_modulus',) in ignored matrix(ZZ, Integer(2), Integer(2), lambda i,j: bool(lst[i] is lst[j]))###line 1926:_sage_ >>> matrix(ZZ, 2, 2, lambda i,j: bool(lst[i] is lst[j])) sig_on_count()
so it happens when doctesting line 1923. These are probably errors encountered during a dealloc, so it might be happening in a garbage collection. It could also be a WeakValueDict
deletion callback that's trying to do a comparison that fails. Googling shows that you've asked about that exact error message on cythonusers
on 27 January, 2012, so if you solved the bug that led to that question then, perhaps you can also solve this one. It could also be a straight memory corruption. [edit:] OK that was on #11521. You didn't really find that error. You just made it go away by inserting a garbage collection. The good news is that this makes it not so likely that the patch here is causing a new memory corruption. It's more likely a lingering issue that once again gets triggered.
comment:23 Changed 10 years ago by
Replying to nbruin:
Replying to SimonKing:
sage t force_lib devel/sage/sage/modular/modsym/ambient.py ********************************************************************** File "/scratch/sking/sage5.4.beta0/devel/sagemain/sage/modular/modsym/ambient.py", line 1351: sage: ModularSymbols(20,2).boundary_space().dimension() Expected: 6 Got: 0I have seen that error before, with other workarounds (and I think also with
singularmalloc
), so if it's indeed only a lower bound, then sage has merely changed. It's not an error.
I am not a number theorist, but I have learnt from the code that the dimension is computed from the number of "cusps". Hence, if one adds the compution of cusps to that test and assigns the involved Hecke modules to variables, then the tests pass:
sage: M = ModularSymbols(20, 2) sage: B = M.boundary_space(); B Space of Boundary Modular Symbols for Congruence Subgroup Gamma0(20) of weight 2 and over Rational Field sage: M.cusps() [Infinity, 0, 1/4, 1/5, 1/2, 1/10] sage: M.dimension() 7 sage: B.dimension() 6
I think this would be a good solution.
The second error is apparently ignored and only printed to stderr:
Exception AttributeError: AttributeError('PolynomialRing_field_with_category' object has no attribute '_modulus',) in ignored Exception AttributeError: AttributeError('PolynomialRing_field_with_category' object has no attribute '_modulus',) in ignoredThis is a worrisome error because it's fickle. ... so it happens when doctesting line 1923. These are probably errors encountered during a dealloc, so it might be happening in a garbage collection. It could also be a
WeakValueDict
deletion callback that's trying to do a comparison that fails.
Agreed.
Googling shows that you've asked about that exact error message on
cythonusers
on 27 January, 2012, so if you solved the bug that led to that question then, perhaps you can also solve this one.
Yes, but that question was a pure Cython question, namely like: "Wouldn't it be a good idea to print the function name in which an error was ignored, rather than printing an empty string? That would help debugging."
It could also be a straight memory corruption. [edit:] OK that was on #11521. You didn't really find that error.
Yes. But if it surfaces again, we should now solve it for good. I guess deletion from a weak dictionary is a likely candidate.
comment:24 Changed 10 years ago by
I only find two files in sage/rings/ where the string "._modulus" occurs: polynomial_ring.py and polynomial_zz_pex.pyx:
devel/sage/sage/rings/polynomial/polynomial_zz_pex.pyx: c = parent._modulus devel/sage/sage/rings/polynomial/polynomial_zz_pex.pyx: d = parent._modulus.ZZ_pE(list(x.polynomial())) devel/sage/sage/rings/polynomial/polynomial_zz_pex.pyx: d = parent._modulus.ZZ_pE(list(e_polynomial)) devel/sage/sage/rings/polynomial/polynomial_zz_pex.pyx: d = self._parent._modulus.ZZ_pE(list(left.polynomial())) devel/sage/sage/rings/polynomial/polynomial_zz_pex.pyx: _a = self._parent._modulus.ZZ_pE(list(a.polynomial())) devel/sage/sage/rings/polynomial/polynomial_zz_pex.pyx: self._parent._modulus.restore() devel/sage/sage/rings/polynomial/polynomial_zz_pex.pyx: self._parent._modulus.restore() devel/sage/sage/rings/polynomial/polynomial_zz_pex.pyx: left._parent._modulus.restore() devel/sage/sage/rings/polynomial/polynomial_zz_pex.pyx: self._parent._modulus.restore() devel/sage/sage/rings/polynomial/polynomial_ring.py: self._modulus = ntl_ZZ_pEContext(ntl_ZZ_pX(list(base_ring.polynomial()), p))
Hence, it should be easy to find out which of the few locations is actually involved.
comment:25 Changed 10 years ago by
I found that the attribute error occurs in the cdef function get_cparent in sage/rings/polynomial/polynomial_zz_pex.pyx. Next question is then, of course: At what point is get_cparent called?
comment:26 followup: 27 Changed 10 years ago by
Printing messages to stderr, it seems to me that the error occurs during deallocation of a polynomial template, namely in sage/rings/polynomial/polynomial_template.pxi:
def __dealloc__(self): """ EXAMPLE:: sage: P.<x> = GF(2)[] sage: del x """ celement_destruct(&self.x, get_cparent((<Polynomial_template>self)._parent))
Is the cparent of self deallocated too early (perhaps because the refcounting is still not accurate)?
Or is it a nasty race condition? Namely:
 A polynomial p in a polynomial ring R is about to be garbage collected.
 All python stuff is deleted first. In particular, p's reference to its parent R is gone.
 Incidentally, because the reference from p to R is gone, R can now be collected as well.
 When R gets deleted, its underlying libsingular ring is deallocated.
 Now,
p.__dealloc__
is finally called, and tries to access the underlying libsingular ring  but it is too late.
Question: If a polynomial is created, will the reference counter to the underlying libsingular ring be incremented?
comment:27 followup: 29 Changed 10 years ago by
Or is it a nasty race condition? Namely:
 A polynomial p in a polynomial ring R is about to be garbage collected.
 All python stuff is deleted first. In particular, p's reference to its parent R is gone.
 Incidentally, because the reference from p to R is gone, R can now be collected as well.
 When R gets deleted, its underlying libsingular ring is deallocated.
 Now,
p.__dealloc__
is finally called, and tries to access the underlying libsingular ring  but it is too late.Question: If a polynomial is created, will the reference counter to the underlying libsingular ring be incremented?
From what I understand, __dealloc__
methods cannot assume that python attributes are still valid. They fundamentally cannot, because otherwise it wouldn't be possible to clean up cyclic garbage (__del__
methods are run when all attributes are valid and hence if they are present in cyclic garbage, it is not cleared).
So, I think that if the libsingular ring pointer is necessary during deallocation of a polynomial, then it should store it in a cvariable. Then it would indeed need to increase the reference counter.
You'd initially think that you could store a "c level" pointer to the python polynomial ring and manually increase the refcount. That would ensure that the python polynomial ring is still alive when __alloc__
gets called. However, it would also mean that there is an extra refcount that the cyclic garbage detector wouldn't be able to explain, so polynomial rings would always appear to have an "external" reference and hence never be eligible for garbage collection. Since rings tend to cache 0 and 1, such references would always be present and all you work would be for naught: Polynomial rings would exist forever.
So I think you have to bite the bullet and ensure that get_cparent doesn't access any python attributes or that you can avoid calling it in a __dealloc__
.
EDIT: Or perhaps not. While looking at the code a bit I concluded I don't understand a bit of it, due to the templating. I think what I wrote above has some truth to it, but I honestly cannot say whether it has any relevance to the problem at hand. It seems to explain what you're experiencing.
We have:
def __dealloc__(self): celement_destruct(&self.x, get_cparent((<Polynomial_template>self)._parent))
and for us:
get_cparent(parent) == <ntl_ZZ_pEContext_class>(parent._modulus)
The _parent
attribute is a cython slot. However, it holds a reference to a pythonmanaged object, so I think cython ensures it's properly taken into account in GC cycle counting. But that would suggest to me python could clear this slot to break cycles! So in that case, Polynomial_template
is never safe. It could be I'm wrong, however.
I haven't been able to locate what parent._modulus
is in this case. However,
sage: K.<a>=GF(next_prime(2**60)**3) sage: R.<x> = PolynomialRing(K,implementation='NTL') sage: '_modulus' in R.__dict__.keys() True
suggests this attribute is stored in a dictionary. It's set in sage.rings.polynomial.polynomial_ring.PolynomialRing_field.__init__
:1367
if implementation == "NTL" and is_FiniteField(base_ring) and not(sparse): from sage.libs.ntl.ntl_ZZ_pEContext import ntl_ZZ_pEContext from sage.libs.ntl.ntl_ZZ_pX import ntl_ZZ_pX from sage.rings.polynomial.polynomial_zz_pex import Polynomial_ZZ_pEX p=base_ring.characteristic() self._modulus = ntl_ZZ_pEContext(ntl_ZZ_pX(list(base_ring.polynomial()), p)) element_class = Polynomial_ZZ_pEX
I guess we've just found that this is not a very good place to store _modulus
. Where else, though? Would it be enough to have a cythonized version of PolynomialRing_field
so that _modulus
can be tied a little tighter to the parent? It seems to me the parent is the right place to store this information. We just need to convince the parent to hold on to its information for a bit longer.
comment:28 Changed 10 years ago by
Cc:  Robert Bradshaw ylchapuy added 

comment:29 followups: 30 88 Changed 10 years ago by
Replying to nbruin:
We have:
def __dealloc__(self): celement_destruct(&self.x, get_cparent((<Polynomial_template>self)._parent))and for us:
get_cparent(parent) == <ntl_ZZ_pEContext_class>(parent._modulus)The
_parent
attribute is a cython slot.
Interestingly, there is no complaint about a missing attribute _parent
. It is _modulus
that is missing.
However, it holds a reference to a pythonmanaged object, so I think cython ensures it's properly taken into account in GC cycle counting. But that would suggest to me python could clear this slot to break cycles! So in that case,
Polynomial_template
is never safe. It could be I'm wrong, however.
I think you are right. The __dealloc__
of Polynomial_template
is unsafe, unless polynomial rings will stay in memory forever. But I'd love to hear that we are wrong, because otherwise each polynomial would need a pointer to the cdata expected to be returned by get_cparent((<Polynomial_template>self)._parent)
, and we'd need to take into account reference counting for the cparent during creation and deletion of polynomials.
Or perhaps there is a way out. We have a polynomial ring R and we have some elements a,b,c,... Each element points to R, and R points to some of its elements, namely to its generators. The problem is that deallocation of the elements is only possible as long as R is alive.
If we'd manually incref R upon creation of an element x, decrefing R when x gets deallocated, then we would ensure that R will survive until the last of its elements is deleted. Or would that mean that the elements will survive as well, because of the reference from R to its generators? Edit: Yes it would.
comment:30 Changed 10 years ago by
Why don't you do something along the lines of:
cdef cparent get_cparent(parent) except? NULL: if parent is None: return NULL cdef ntl_ZZ_pEContext_class c try: c = parent._modulus except KeyError: c = <some vaguely appropriate proxy value> return &(c.x)
This should really only be happening upon deletion anyway and I I'd be surprised if having the correct _modulus
is very important at that point. It's a dirty hack but alternatives probably mean a full reimplementation of these polynomial rings.
Looking in ntl_ZZ_pEX_linkage seems to indicate it only leads to
if parent != NULL: parent[0].restore()
so perhaps you can just use NULL
as a proxy value!
Changed 10 years ago by
Attachment:  trac_13447modulus_fix.patch added 

return NULL instead of raising AttributeError?
comment:31 Changed 10 years ago by
YAY! indeed, returning NULL seems to solve the problem. I don't know whether there are any other ill effects, but since NULL was already returned upon missing parent, I think that with an incomplete parent it's an appropriate value too. It seems the NTL wrapper was already written with the possibility in mind of not having a valid parent around.
comment:32 Changed 10 years ago by
Report Upstream:  Reported upstream. No feedback yet. → None of the above  read trac for reasoning. 

Great! I didn't expect that NULL would work here, because, after all, cdata of a polynomial is supposed to be deallocated with the help of cdata of a polynomial ring celement_destruct(&self.x, get_cparent((<Polynomial_template>self)._parent))
 but if someone has already thought of the possibility that the parent is invalid, then doing the same with an invalid parent._modulus seems the right thing to do.
While we are at it, I changed the "Reported Upstream" field, because it isn't an upstream bug, after all.
A bit later today, I will also provide a patch fixing the Hecke module dimensions, as in comment:23. Do you want me to ask a number theorists whether the fix ("Compute the cusps, which implies that the dimension is computed as well") is mathematically correct? Or is it enough for you that the same number as before (dimension 6) is obtained?
comment:33 Changed 10 years ago by
Authors:  → Nils Bruin, Simon King 

Description:  modified (diff) 
Status:  needs_info → needs_review 
Work issues:  Input from libsingular experts → Input from a libsingular expert 
I have provided a new patch, that removes the custom refcounter, using Singular's refcounter (ring.ref) instead.
As I have announced, I also fixed the failing modular symbols test, by computing the dimension before displaying it: The test previously worked only because a computation happened in a different test that happened to be executed early enough, that side effect being possible because Hecke modules would stay in memory permanently.
I did not run the full test suite yet. But sage/rings/polynomial/plural.pyx and sage/rings/polynomial/multi_polynomial_libsingular.pyx and sage/modular/modsym/ambient.py all work.
Problems for the release manager and the reviewer:
 I removed the custom refcounting. But there were tests using the custom refcounters. The original tests demonstrated that the underlying cdata (the libsingular ring) is properly deleted. I replaced them by tests showing that the
MPolynomialRing_libsingular
get garbage collected. Is that OK from your point of view?
 The mentioned tests will only work with #715 and #11521, because they are responsible for making polynomial rings garbage collectable. Hence, #13447 and #715 and #11521 need to be merged together; just having #715 and #11521 would result in the OS X problem we encountered, and #13447 alone would have two failing tests.
 #13145 has already been merged in sage5.4.beta1. I suggest to unmerge it, because it uses the old unreliable "double refcount" approach. My new patch also takes care of refcounting of plural rings.
Apply trac_13447consolidated_refcount.patch trac_13447modulus_fix.patch trac_13447rely_on_singular_refcount.patch
comment:34 Changed 10 years ago by
Dependencies:  → #11521 

Description:  modified (diff) 
comment:35 Changed 10 years ago by
Status:  needs_review → needs_work 

Good news! With the new patches, i.e.
$ hg qa trac_715_combined.patch trac_715_local_refcache.patch trac_715_safer.patch trac_715_specification.patch trac_11521_homset_weakcache_combined.patch trac_11521_callback.patch trac_13447consolidated_refcount.patch trac_13447modulus_fix.patch trac_13447rely_on_singular_refcount.patch
there is only one crash with make ptest, namely
sage t force_lib devel/sage/sage/libs/singular/groebner_strategy.pyx # Killed/crashed
The crash seems harmless, this time: It occurs at strat = GroebnerStrategy(None)
, and I suspect that the attempt to incref "None" is a bad idea...
While we are at it: Perhaps it would be better to not unmerge #13145, but to use it as a dependency.
comment:36 Changed 10 years ago by
In order to get nice tests, I think one should introduce a function that returns the refcount of a commutative or noncommutative libsingular ring.
comment:37 Changed 10 years ago by
Having a function that shows the refcount really is a good idea! I already found that elements of a noncommutative ring do not increment the refcount to the underlying "libplural" ring.
Anyway, a new test in the commutative setting shall be:
sage: import gc sage: gc.collect() # random sage: R.<x,y,z> = GF(5)[] sage: R._get_refcount() 7 sage: p = x*y+z sage: R._get_refcount() 8 sage: del p sage: gc.collect() # random sage: R._get_refcount() 7
Of course, the question is whether we really need to incref the ring if we create an element. I think, in the commutative case, it is needed, because deallocation of an element refers to the cparent.
It could be that in the noncommutative case we have already a workaround:
def __dealloc__(self): # TODO: Warn otherwise! # for some mysterious reason, various things may be NULL in some cases if self._parent is not <ParentWithBase>None and (<NCPolynomialRing_plural>self._parent)._ring != NULL and self._poly != NULL: p_Delete(&self._poly, (<NCPolynomialRing_plural>self._parent)._ring)
I think we could leave it like that, for now. If someone feels it is needed, then he/she may change NCPolynomial_plural
to use templates.
comment:38 followup: 39 Changed 10 years ago by
I think all the wrap_ring
and ring_wrapper
stuff can go from polynomial_libsingular
. I think this was only there to provide a dictionary key for the ring_refcount_dictionary
. Any code that uses it is liable to require change anyway, so deleting it is probably a good thing.
comment:39 Changed 10 years ago by
Replying to nbruin:
I think all the
wrap_ring
andring_wrapper
stuff can go frompolynomial_libsingular
. I think this was only there to provide a dictionary key for thering_refcount_dictionary
. Any code that uses it is liable to require change anyway, so deleting it is probably a good thing.
Sure. I am about to prepare a new patch version, that uses singular_ring_reference
and singular_ring_delete
consequently (and not with a manual ..._ring.ref += 1
, as in sage.libs.singular.function).
comment:40 Changed 10 years ago by
There is one nasty detail with singular_function. If one sets ring = singular_function('ring')
and then uses the singular_function to create a ring, then its reference counter is not incremented, even though the following function is called in this case:
cdef inline RingWrap new_RingWrap(ring* r): cdef RingWrap ring_wrap_result = PY_NEW(RingWrap) ring_wrap_result._ring = r ring_wrap_result._ring.ref += 1 return ring_wrap_result
I do not understand it, yet. But anyway, that's the problem I am currently dealing with.
Changed 10 years ago by
Attachment:  trac_13447rely_on_singular_refcount.patch added 

Use Singular's refcounter for refcounting
comment:41 Changed 10 years ago by
Description:  modified (diff) 

Status:  needs_work → needs_review 
The problems that I mentioned are now solved with the new patch version.
Note that the new patch is relative to #13145, which I made a new dependency for #715.
So, for the record:
$ hg qa trac_715_combined.patch trac_715_local_refcache.patch trac_715_safer.patch trac_715_specification.patch trac_11521_homset_weakcache_combined.patch trac_11521_callback.patch 13145.patch trac_13447consolidated_refcount.patch trac_13447modulus_fix.patch trac_13447rely_on_singular_refcount.patch
Let's keep the fingers crossed that the tests pass this time.
Apply trac_13447consolidated_refcount.patch trac_13447modulus_fix.patch trac_13447rely_on_singular_refcount.patch
comment:42 Changed 10 years ago by
Reviewers:  → Simon King 

Hooray!
All tests passed! Total time for all tests: 1128.9 seconds
And I did not notice any "ignored" errors.
I think I can give Nils' part of the patches a positive review, and suggest a crossreview.
Changed 10 years ago by
Attachment:  trac_13447refcount_cleanup.patch added 

clean up final bits in refcounting of singular rings
comment:43 Changed 10 years ago by
Description:  modified (diff) 

Patches look good to me, so a positive review from me for Simon's patches.
I've attached a further patch to clean up some more details. Doctests pass for me, but Simon should look at it and decide if he's happy with it. Please go ahead and amend as you see necessary. I also have no problem with the patches being unified (we have some very small patches here now)
Apply trac_13447consolidated_refcount.patch trac_13447modulus_fix.patch trac_13447rely_on_singular_refcount.patch trac_13447refcount_cleanup.patch
comment:44 Changed 10 years ago by
Concerning the last patch: I think one should rather use (as it is "officially" recommended in the docs) singular_ring_reference
and singular_ring_delete
, and not
if currRingHdl.data.uring!= currRing: currRingHdl.data.uring.ref = 1 if currRingHdl.data.uring.ref == 0: rDelete(currRingHdl.data.uring) currRingHdl.data.uring = currRing # ref counting? currRingHdl.data.uring.ref += 1
Apart from that, I agree that the ring wrappers can be binned.
A bit later today, I will produce a combined patch, and provided that all tests pass I will set it to positive review.
comment:45 Changed 10 years ago by
For the record: Apparently it is impossible to use the "proper" singular_ring_delete function in the code snipped mentioned in comment:44. I guess the problem is that singular_ring_delete will set currRing=None
in certain situations  hence, the next line currRingHdl.data.uring = singular_ring_reference(currRing)
will fail with a segfault.
So, I'll leave this code snipped as it is.
comment:46 Changed 10 years ago by
On the other hand: I'd really like to understand why it doesn't work with singular_ring_delete
in this case.
I found that the segfault occurs inside singular_ring_delete(currRingHdl.data.uring)
when attempting to change to currRingHdl.data.uring
. So, apparently, currRingHdl.data.uring
is invalid at that point. And this is hardly surprising, because it is created by the following lines, which look like a hack to me:
if currRingHdl == NULL: import sys currRingHdl = enterid("my_awesome_sage_ring", 0, RING_CMD, &IDROOT, 1) currRingHdl.data.uring.ref += 1
comment:47 Changed 10 years ago by
Now I think I understand:
currRingHdl = enterid("my_awesome_sage_ring", 0, RING_CMD, &IDROOT, 1)
has the purpose to create currRingHdl
(it is only called if currRingHdl==NULL
), but the value assigned to currRingHdl.data.uring
is invalid. In particular, the attempt to change to currRingHdl.data.uring
results in a segfault. Hence, singular_ring_delete(currRingHdl.data.uring)
would not work.
Solution: We create currRingHdl
, but we immediately delete the invalid currRingHdl.data.uring
and replace it by a new reference to currRing
. If there is no currRing
then I print a warning, but I hope that we will never see that warning...
comment:48 Changed 10 years ago by
Description:  modified (diff) 

I have attached a combined patch. Nils, are you happy with what I did with currRingHdl
in sage/libs/singular/function.pyx? If you are, and if the tests pass, then please set it to "positive review"
For the record: I have
$ hg qa trac_715_combined.patch trac_715_local_refcache.patch trac_715_safer.patch trac_715_specification.patch trac_11521_homset_weakcache_combined.patch trac_11521_callback.patch 13145.patch trac_13447sanitise_ring_refcount.patch
on top of sage5.4.beta0 Edit and the tests both in sage/rings/polynomial and sage/libs/singular pass. Let's hope for the full test suite!
Apply trac_13447sanitise_ring_refcount.patch
comment:49 Changed 10 years ago by
Owner:  Robert Miller deleted 

make ptest
succeeded on bsd.math! To be on the safe side, I am now testing make ptestlong
, but if you (Nils) is happy with my changes to currRingHdl
then please finish the review!
comment:51 followup: 53 Changed 10 years ago by
I'm not so sure that
currRingHdl = enterid("my_awesome_sage_ring", 0, RING_CMD, &IDROOT, 1) currRingHdl.data.uring.ref += 1
is entirely safe. In 'libsingtest2.cc' (in the Singular package, the following similar code is used:
// prepare the arguments // create a ring Q[x,y] // the variable names char **n=(char**)omAlloc(2*sizeof(char*)); n[0]=(char*)"x"; n[1]=(char*)"y"; // create the ring ring R=rDefault(0,2,n); // n is not needed any more: omFreeSize(n,2*sizeof(char*)); // make it the default ring, also for the interpeter idhdl newRingHdl=enterid("R" /* ring name*/, 0, /*nesting level, 0=global*/ RING_CMD, &IDROOT, FALSE); IDRING(newRingHdl)=R; rSetHdl(newRingHdl);
I'd assume IDRING(newRingHdl)
is newRingHdl.data.uring
, so the assignment above does not assume anything about that field being initialized. So who knows where newRingHdl.data.uring.ref
points!
I get the impression that indeed, currRing
is set to something valid nearly always, so your assumption that it is during SingularFunction.__init__
(that's earlier than calling!) might be OK. The singular code does contain an awful lot of currRing!=NULL
checks though, so I'm not so sure that's really guaranteed.
OK, a little searching of the Singular source shows that enterid
(which takes 6 arguments but we call it with 5 and so does the above example) apparently calls idrec::set
, in our case with init=1
and the example above with init=0
. The init=1
causes a call idrecDataInit
and for a ring command that does omAlloc0Bin(sip_sring_bin)
. The resulting pointer gets indeed assigned to what I think is ...data.uring
(although not in a very typerespecting way, but I guess that's par for C code).
So my guess is that by calling with init=1
we indeed get a block that we can delete. Since that's all we do with it I think the cleaner way for us would be
currRingHdl = enterid("my_awesome_sage_ring", 0, RING_CMD, &IDROOT, 0) currRingHdl.data.uring = NULL
(or whatever is the appropriate value for uring), as per the libsing example above)
if currRingHdl.data.uring!= currRing: if currRingHdl.data.uring != NULL: singular_ring_delete(currRingHdl.data.uring) currRingHdl.data.uring = currRing singular_ring_reference(currRing)
(or indeed just leave init=1 in place so that currRingHdl.data.uring
is never NULL. In any case, this happens at most once in any sage session, so the leaked memory (if any) would be minuscule.
Concerning refcounts: I found the following in dyn_modules/python/ring_wrap.h
#include <boost/intrusive_ptr.hpp> using namespace boost; //typedef intrusive_ptr<ip_sring> Ring; // inline void intrusive_ptr_add_ref(ring r){ // r>ref++; // } // inline void intrusive_ptr_release(ring r){ // r>ref; // if (r>ref<=0) rDelete(r); // }
which is in step with our use of the ref field. But the code is commented out! There is such a thing as an intrusive_ptr
in Boost and I think it needs exactly those two functions declared to function. If this is what is intended then we're OK. If this is commented out because now a different scheme is used, we may be in trouble.
EDIT: kernel/Number.h
contains uncommented definitions:
using namespace boost; inline void intrusive_ptr_add_ref(ring r){ r>ref++; //Print("ref count after add: %d", r>ref); } inline void intrusive_ptr_release(ring r){ if (r>ref<=0) rDelete(r); else { r>ref; } //Print("ref count after release: %d", r>ref); }
I find the ptr_release
a little worrisome: Do the singular people believe that r>ref ==0
means that there is still a reference? Do they really want to count references "1"based? I guess one can count it as "additional" references. I'm afraid they might. From
Singular/ipshell.cc
:
void rKill(ring r) { if ((r>ref<=0)&&(r>order!=NULL)) { ... rDelete(r); return; } r>ref; } void rKill(idhdl h) { ring r = IDRING(h); int ref=0; if (r!=NULL) { ref=r>ref; rKill(r); } if (h==currRingHdl) { if (ref<=0) { currRing=NULL; currRingHdl=NULL;} else { currRingHdl=rFindHdl(r,currRingHdl,NULL); } } }
this code all indicates that special action is required only if ref<=0
'before' decreasing. Can you check with singular people if that's the correct usage of the ref
field? If we use it in a different way I image nasty bugs could arise later (our use would prevent singular from ever deleting a ring we've had our hands on (if it would ever do that) and if we get a ring that singular initially constructed, we could delete it prematurely, due to an offbyone.
In that case we should probably ensure that singular_ring_ref
and singular_delete_ring
are somehow aliased to boost::intrusive_ptr_add_ref
and intrusive_ptr_release
from kernel/Number.h
.
comment:52 Changed 10 years ago by
Status:  needs_review → needs_info 

libSingular experts: Does ring>ref == 0
mean there is exactly one reference to the ring still active?
comment:53 followups: 54 55 Changed 10 years ago by
Replying to nbruin:
I'm not so sure that
currRingHdl = enterid("my_awesome_sage_ring", 0, RING_CMD, &IDROOT, 1) currRingHdl.data.uring.ref += 1is entirely safe.
I am sure that it is not safe: One can't even call singular_ring_delete on it. That's why I removed it, unless currRing==NULL
.
EDIT:
kernel/Number.h
contains uncommented definitions:using namespace boost; inline void intrusive_ptr_add_ref(ring r){ r>ref++; //Print("ref count after add: %d", r>ref); } inline void intrusive_ptr_release(ring r){ if (r>ref<=0) rDelete(r); else { r>ref; } //Print("ref count after release: %d", r>ref); }I find the
ptr_release
a little worrisome: Do the singular people believe thatr>ref ==0
means that there is still a reference?
According to the code snipped, the ring is deleted if r>ref==0
. So, apparently r>ref==0
means that there is no reference.
this code all indicates that special action is required only if
ref<=0
'before' decreasing.
If ref<=0
then no reference is left, hence, the ring is deleted. Otherwise, the reference counter is decremented. I really don't understand the problem.
In that case we should probably ensure that
singular_ring_ref
andsingular_delete_ring
are somehow aliased toboost::intrusive_ptr_add_ref
andintrusive_ptr_release
fromkernel/Number.h
.
Singular tests whether ref<=0
; if it is, then the ring is deleted, but if it isn't then the counter is decremented.
We first decrement the counter, and then test whether ref<0
; if it is, then the ring is deleted, but if it isn't then no further action is taken.
Isn't that logically the same?
comment:54 Changed 10 years ago by
Replying to SimonKing:
According to the code snipped, the ring is deleted if
r>ref==0
. So, apparentlyr>ref==0
means that there is no reference.
Indeed, but this is tested before decrement. So for this to work, you'd need
R=create_ring_with_appropriate_refcount // here R.ref should be 0 //for the following to cause deletion. intrusive_ptr_release(R)
We initialize R.ref=1
in singular_ring_new
.
If
ref<=0
then no reference is left, hence, the ring is deleted. Otherwise, the reference counter is decremented. I really don't understand the problem.
If ref<=0
BEFORE the reference count is decreased. The difference is that intrusive_ptr_release
happily leaves a ring in memory that AFTER the call has R.ref==0. Our singular_ring_delete
will only abstain from calling rDelete(doomed)
if after the call we have doomed.ref > 0
.
401 doomed.ref = doomed.ref1 402 if doomed.ref > 0: 403 return
The two behaviours are offbyone.
Singular tests whether
ref<=0
; if it is, then the ring is deleted, but if it isn't then the counter is decremented.We first decrement the counter, and then test whether
ref<0
; if it is, then the ring is deleted, but if it isn't then no further action is taken.
We don't. We test whether ref<=0
(or rather whether ref>0
to see if we should do an early exit).
As our doctests show, apparently we're never calling singular_ring_delete
on rings we haven't initialized the ref
field on ourselves and that singular expects to to survive after we do, since that would probably lead to an error (Singular would try to access a deallocated ring).
A mismatch in the other direction would be milder: Singular takes a reference on a ring we initialized the ref field on, we lose our last reference via a singular_ring_delete
(no rDelete gets called because Singular correctly increased the refcount). However, Singular will never delete the ring because we originally initialized the ref field to 1 whereas Singular apparently expects it to be initialized to 0.
comment:55 Changed 10 years ago by
Replying to SimonKing:
I am sure that it is not safe: One can't even call singular_ring_delete on it. That's why I removed it, unless
currRing==NULL
.
I think that's because singular_ring_delete
does a changeCurrentRing
on it. Calling rDelete
seems to work just fine. I think that thanks to the init=1
the memory for the ring is allocated, but initialized to 0 thanks to the omAlloc0
. My failure to locate a ref = 1
anywhere in Singular's code also makes me believe that they're happy giving back a ring where ref = 0
.
I'm not so sure the rChangeCurrRing
dance is necessary in singular_ring_delete
. The code in intrusive_ptr_release
doesn't need it. I suspect Volker put it in as an extra precaution while he was trying to debug other issues. A cursory reading of the code of rDelete
doesn't seem to indicate its operation is affected in any way by whether the current ring is equal to the one being deleted.
comment:56 Changed 10 years ago by
OK, I asked Hans Schönemann. I hope he'll answer soon.
If r>ref==0
really means in Singular that there is exactly one reference left, then we should act accordingly.
comment:57 followups: 59 64 Changed 10 years ago by
Status:  needs_info → needs_review 

Work issues:  Input from a libsingular expert 
Hans Schönemann gave me a couple of answers  many thanks! I hope I am translating and summarising correctly:
r>ref
counts the number of interpreter variables referencing a ring minus one. Hence:
ring r=.....; // ref is 0 def rr=r; // ref is 1 kill r; // ref is 0 kill rr; // ref is 0 when calling rKill > delete it.
There are locally generated rings (in std, for example), unbeknownst to the interpreter  they have ref zero.
Singular uses r>ref
only in rKill
 it makes me wonder why we use rDelete
and not rKill
, by the way. In fact, rKill
deletes local data, but rDelete
doesn't.
Generally, one should have currRingHdl.ring == currRing
, or currRing==NULL
and currRingHdl==NULL
. I just notice that he wrote currRingHdl.ring
, not currRingHdl.data.uring
 is that a difference?
Concerning debugging: If one builds Singular so that OM_NDEBUG
is not defined, then a debug version of omalloc is used. In that way, we would have more easily detected the original problem with omStrDup
.
Conclusions
I am not sure if you agree with my conclusions, but here we go:
Since r>ref
does not play a rôle in libsingular, we are free to use r>ref
to count the number of pointers to r (not "number of pointers minus one"). However, when calling singular interpreter functions, we must make sure that r>ref>0
. With our patch, we already do so  hence, that's fine.
Since we apply singular_ring_delete
to noncommutative (quotient) rings, and we do not call rKill
but only rDelete
, we currently have a memory leak for noncommutative rings. rKill
will first test that r>ref==0
, then kills local data, then kills the ring, and sets currRing
and friends to NULL if the tobedeleted ring is currRing
. Hence, we should use rKill
in singular_ring_delete
, but probably without the rChangeCurrRing
dance.
If currRing==NULL
, we should not create currRingHdl
. If currRing!=NULL
then we should let uring point to it. the latter is already done in my patch, the former should be done.
So far I forgot to ask Hans about enterid("my_awesome_sage_ring", 0, RING_CMD, &IDROOT, 1)
.
comment:58 Changed 10 years ago by
Status:  needs_review → needs_work 

Work issues:  → Replace rDelete by rKill. Only create currRingHdl if currRing is not null 
comment:59 Changed 10 years ago by
Replying to SimonKing:
Since we apply
singular_ring_delete
to noncommutative (quotient) rings, and we do not callrKill
but onlyrDelete
, we currently have a memory leak for noncommutative rings.
Or perhaps we do not have a leak. Namely, the internal data are also referenced via python, and thus will be deleted when the ring is deleted.
Well, let's see if rKill
results in segfaults (due to the attempt to deallocate the internal data twice)...
comment:60 Changed 10 years ago by
Status:  needs_work → needs_review 

Work issues:  Replace rDelete by rKill. Only create currRingHdl if currRing is not null 
I have updated trac_13447sanitise_ring_refcount.patch.
Changes:
currRingHdl
is only created ifcurrRing!=NULL
, andcurrRingHdl.data.uring
is subsequently set tocurrRing
.singular_ring_delete
is now usingrKill
in lieu ofrDelete
, so that local data are guaranteed to be deallocated.
In my previous comment, I was a bit sceptical about the second point. However, all doctests pass on bsd.math, hence, using rKill
does not result in a segfault. In other words, the local data are not doublefreed, und thus rKill
is better than rDelete
.
Apply trac_13447sanitise_ring_refcount.patch
comment:61 Changed 10 years ago by
Here is one comment of Hans on the following lines of the patch:
global currRingHdl if currRingHdl == NULL and currRing!=NULL: # Create an invalid mock ring  it would not be possible # to make that ring currRing! # The only aim is to create currRingHdl currRingHdl = enterid("my_awesome_sage_ring", 0, RING_CMD, &IDROOT, 1) # Now we assign proper data to currRingHdl rDelete(currRingHdl.data.uring) currRingHdl.data.uring = singular_ring_reference(currRing)
He says that it is ok like that. However, it would be better to do
global currRingHdl if currRingHdl == NULL and currRing!=NULL: # Create an invalid mock ring  it would not be possible # to make that ring currRing! # The only aim is to create currRingHdl currRingHdl = enterid("my_awesome_sage_ring", 0, RING_CMD, &IDROOT, 0) # Now we assign proper data to currRingHdl currRingHdl.data.uring = singular_ring_reference(currRing)
Note the difference in the last argument of enterid
.
I'll try it...
comment:62 Changed 10 years ago by
I have updated the patch again. Tests pass on bsd.math.
The difference between enterid(...,0) and enterid(...,1) is that the former does not allocate memory for currRingHdl.data.uring
, while the latter does. Hence, using enterid(..., 0)
, one avoids the useless call to rDelete
.
Apply trac_13447sanitise_ring_refcount.patch
comment:63 Changed 10 years ago by
I'm afraid you (at least theoretically) have recreated the possibility for our original error to occur. We essentially have:
SingularFunction.__init__: if currRingHdl == NULL and currRing!=NULL: currRingHdl = <create ring handle> currRingHdl.data.uring = currRing SingularFunction.__call__: if currRingHdl.data.uring!= currRing: singular_ring_delete(currRingHdl.data.uring) currRingHdl.data.uring = singular_ring_reference(currRing)
If we init with currRing == NULL
we may be leaving currRingHdl == NULL
. If a subsequent invocation of call happens after currRing
has a new value and currRingHdl
is not updated (if that would never happen we wouldn't need this code) we'd be calling
if NULL.data.uring!= currRing: singular_ring_delete(NULL.data.uring) NULL.data.uring = singular_ring_reference(currRing)
which will segfault (OK, this error is much better than the original).
From what you describe, rKill
can set currRingHdl=NULL
as well, in which case we definitely get an error in the above code. Thus it seems to me it's theoretically possible that __call__
happens when currRingHdl=NULL
and currRing!=NULL
. In that case you should recreate a handle:
if currRingHdl != NULL: if currRing != NULL: if currRingHdl.data.uring != currRing: if currRingHdl.data.uring != NULL: singular_ring_delete(currRingHdl.data.uring) currRingHdl.data.uring = currRing #I don't think this should up refcounts else: #currRing == NULL and currRingHdl != NULL rKill(currRingHdl) #delete the handle as well. You could also save it for reuse #I think this looks at the refcount currRingHdl = NULL else: if currRing != NULL: currRingHdl = enterid("my_awesome_sage_ring", 0, RING_CMD, &IDROOT, 0) #note the 0 currRingHdl.data.uring = currRing # NOW the following invariant holds: assert (currRingHdl == NULL and currRing == NUL) or currRingHdl.data.uring == currRing
I think that without extra assumptions you must be prepared to deal with all those conditions. Also note that you might be creating a new ringhandle an arbitrary number of times, so knowing whether you leak becomes important. The sequence I use above is what i think the libsingular examples that are shipped with singular do.
You can already see here that the use of rKill (which does look at reference counts) forces us to follow Singular's conventions of what the ref
field. At this point we're assuming that if currRingHdl holds the last reference to a ring, we should probably delete it.
I think the convention is that currRingHdl (if it's relevant) is pointing to the same ring as currRing, so they are treated as one reference: currRingHdl.data.uring = currRing
does not increase a refcount. That obviously leads to problems when currRing
diverges from currRingHdl
.
Either you attach memory management ONLY to currRingHdl
and trust that when currRing
is changed, someone else will still have a reference to the original value, who can throw away the ring (so, currRing
is only changed by straight assignments  no increfs or decrefs. It's always a borrowed reference) or you always ensure that currRingHdl
gets updated (or at least cleared) when currRing
changes. My impression is that refcounting in singular is only an interpreter thing, so that the former is the model used by Singular itself.
Double free implies segfault: Have you verified this is true with omAlloc?
Refcounting base: I agree that as long as our created rings and rings created internally live separate lives, it doesn't matter what semantics we attach to the ref
field. I just think it's dangerous to implicitly assume these rings do live separate lives. They do now, but who's to guarantee that they do in the future? And even then it may take a long time for a visible error to occur, which by then might be difficult to track down. I think we should adjust to the semantics Singular uses in other places (and document the slightly unusual refcounting semantics of Singular in our code!) to make the libsingular interface as robust as possible. You know how extensions/modifications are going to happen: people will just copy/paste what's already there.
comment:64 followup: 65 Changed 10 years ago by
Replying to SimonKing:
There are locally generated rings (in std, for example), unbeknownst to the interpreter  they have ref zero.
Singular uses
r>ref
only inrKill
 it makes me wonder why we userDelete
and notrKill
, by the way. In fact,rKill
deletes local data, butrDelete
doesn't.
If we do that, we should ensure that rKill
has an accurate view of the number of references. That means adjusting to Singular's conventions. If we rKill with our current code, we'd leak because we'd call with a positive refcount. I guess you could manually decref before calling rKill but that's silly and misleading to future maintainers of the code.
Generally, one should have
currRingHdl.ring == currRing
, orcurrRing==NULL
andcurrRingHdl==NULL
. I just notice that he wrotecurrRingHdl.ring
, notcurrRingHdl.data.uring
 is that a difference?
I don't think the former actually exists. A macro is used in the singular code base, so Hans would not usually spell it out in full.
Concerning debugging: If one builds Singular so that
OM_NDEBUG
is not defined, then a debug version of omalloc is used. In that way, we would have more easily detected the original problem withomStrDup
.
Didn't work for me but I might have just failed to properly (de)activate those flags. Anyway, I doubt an accessafterfree would be immediately detected. That really involves unmapping or protecting memory in order to force a segfault. I didn't see evidence that omAlloc reaches that deep into the system. It may be that omAlloc in debugging mode does consistency checks on every use. In that case we might have found the corruption a little earlier. I doubt we would have had gdb point exactly at the offending instruction. I think it would be nice for singular to update the omAlloc headers with my changes so that (at least on linux and OSX) they can build it with the malloc underneath. I found it very useful for this particular issue.
Conclusions Since
r>ref
does not play a rôle in libsingular, we are free to user>ref
to count the number of pointers to r (not "number of pointers minus one"). However, when calling singular interpreter functions, we must make sure thatr>ref>0
. With our patch, we already do so  hence, that's fine.
In principle yes, but not if we use rKill and I think it's a bad idea in general because it might cause unforeseen problems in the future. Better to stick with one interpretation of what the ref
field means.
If
currRing==NULL
, we should not createcurrRingHdl
. IfcurrRing!=NULL
then we should let uring point to it. the latter is already done in my patch, the former should be done.
As you indicate, currRingHdl can be NULLed again by rKill. We need to correct that if we need currRingHdl later.
In fact, without extra infrastructure to clean up after it, it seems that rKill
leaks ringhandles. Is it the case that ring handles are registered in some global data structure that allows them to be deleted? This loop might be the candidate:
while (r>idroot!=NULL) { killhdl2(r>idroot,&(r>idroot),r); }
that might do this. In any case, rKill just does a straight currRingHdl=NULL
if (r==currRing)
, so currRingHdl
is definitely gone.
Is it really necessary to use rKill
? It seems it is more part of the interpreter layer and that the libsingular interface itself is largely one level lower. Have we initialized enough of the interpreter to let rKill
function as advertised?
It is by now clear that up to now, the Sagelibsingular interface was largely based on empirically verified guesses. Now that Simon has good contact with Hans, perhaps we can ensure the interface follows official protocol?
comment:65 Changed 10 years ago by
Replying to nbruin:
Replying to SimonKing:
Singular uses
r>ref
only inrKill
 it makes me wonder why we userDelete
and notrKill
, by the way. In fact,rKill
deletes local data, butrDelete
doesn't.If we do that, we should ensure that
rKill
has an accurate view of the number of references. That means adjusting to Singular's conventions. If we rKill with our current code, we'd leak because we'd call with a positive refcount.
No, we don't. With the current patch, rKill
is only called if ref==0.
Conclusions Since
r>ref
does not play a rôle in libsingular, we are free to user>ref
to count the number of pointers to r (not "number of pointers minus one"). However, when calling singular interpreter functions, we must make sure thatr>ref>0
. With our patch, we already do so  hence, that's fine.In principle yes, but not if we use rKill
I disagree, since we only call rKill with r>ref==0
.
and I think it's a bad idea in general because it might cause unforeseen problems in the future. Better to stick with one interpretation of what the
ref
field means.
In a way, we do. Namely, one could argue that a Sage polynomial ring MPolynomialRing_libsingular
is an interpreter variable (roughly, it is an object that does not live in the Singular kernel but points to a ring in the Singular kernel). Hence, when creating a polynomial ring, it agrees with Singular's conventions to increase the refcount.
As you indicate, currRingHdl can be NULLed again by rKill. We need to correct that if we need currRingHdl later.
currRingHdl
is only NULLed if currRing
is deleted. So, that should be fine.
In any case, rKill just does a straight
currRingHdl=NULL
if(r==currRing)
, socurrRingHdl
is definitely gone.
You mean, it doesn't free it before assigning NULL
? Yes, that would seem to be a leak.
Is it really necessary to use
rKill
? It seems it is more part of the interpreter layer and that the libsingular interface itself is largely one level lower.
I'll try rKill
versus rDelete
in singular_ring_delete
and will try to see if there is a leak when creating and deleting super commutative rings (SCA).
comment:66 Changed 10 years ago by
comment:67 Changed 10 years ago by
With #12313 and its dependencies, SCA can be collected, but its underlying ring is not deleted. Wrong refcount, I guess.
comment:68 Changed 10 years ago by
Status:  needs_review → needs_work 

Work issues:  → Understand why sometimes `new_RingWrap` needs an incref and sometimes not 
The wrong refcount appears to be in sage/libs/singular/function.pyx, where in the current patch we have
# We need to incref the tobeconverted data, # since apparently removing to_convert.data would # decref it. return new_RingWrap( singular_ring_reference(<ring*> to_convert.data) )
There was some example where the refcount was wrong without calling singular_ring_reference
, but for SCA it is wrong with that call.
So, that is something that we need to understand, and needs work.
comment:69 Changed 10 years ago by
Some suggestions:
The singular function rKill
seems to do what we want in singular_ring_delete
. Hence, to keep it simple, singular_ring_delete
should call rKill
, and nothing more (unless we want a sanity test, such as printing a warning if singular_ring_delete
is called on NULL).
rKill
only takes action if r>ref
is zero when it is called. Indeed, according to Hans, r>ref
is the number of interpreter variables pointing to a ring, minus one. In order to avoid confusion, we should follow the same idea.
So, what means "interpreter variables" for us? I think this should be "any Sage object whose deallocation needs the libsingular ring being alive". This is every polynomial ring, every Gröbner strategy, and any element of a polynomial ring.
Since ref is 1 based, when a Sage ring R is created then ref shall be zero, so that the underlying libsingular ring can be properly deleted if R is deallocated. And if any element or Gröbner strategy on that ring is created, ref needs to be incremented. The deallocation of an element or Gröbner strategy must involve a call to singular_ring_delete
.
A complication arises when calling a singular_function. When we call a Singular interpreter function, then we should have ref>0, again according to Hans. Hence, at the begin of a call, ref must be incremented, and decremented when leaving it.
Special care needs to be taken on currRingHdl
. According to Hans, rKill
can make it NULL, and it should be NULL if and only if currRing
is NULL. Currently, we create currRingHdl
when we create a Singular function, but we only use it when we call a Singular function. That's asking for trouble. Hence, we should move the creation of currRingHdl to SingularFunction.__call__
, where we also set the correct currRing
. SingularFunction.__init__
is not the right place.
comment:70 Changed 10 years ago by
I think one potential problem with our current use of currRingHdl
in combination with rKill
is that we would redefine my_awesome_sage_ring
, hence, we would see the following message on stderr:
// ** redefining my_awesome_sage_ring **
I'll ask Hans how one can create currRingHdl
without creating a mock ring.
comment:71 Changed 10 years ago by
Here is one complication for singular_function: If you do singular_function("std")
, then a SingularKernelFunction
is created. In its __init__
, it creates a call handler, and for that purpose it needs to find out the arity of the Singular kernel function.
But apparently the arity of std can not be correctly determined, if currRing==0
: One obtains arity 0, not 1, for std.
Therefore, when I move the creation of currRingHdl
from SingularFunction.__init__
to where the function is called, an error occurs.
A question arises: Is there a singular function that changes its arity depending on currRing
? If it is the case, then we must determine SingularKernelFunction.call_handler
each time the function is called, rather than during initialisation.
comment:72 followup: 73 Changed 10 years ago by
Replying to SimonKing:
I think one potential problem with our current use of
currRingHdl
in combination withrKill
is that we would redefinemy_awesome_sage_ring
, hence, we would see the following message on stderr:// ** redefining my_awesome_sage_ring **
I suspect the records do get cleared, because otherwise Singular would leave a dangling pointer around and one would have what is essentially a singular ring variable with NULL pointer to a ring or a pointer to unallocated memory .
If those variables do get properly removed, by the time we have to redefine the thing there should be no trace of the original and hence it would not be a redefinition. If the skeleton somehow does remain (with a nulled out data.uring
field then, I suppose?), we could keep it around:
saved_skeleton=enterid("my_awesome_sage_ring", 0, RING_CMD, &IDROOT, 0) .... if currRingHdl == NULL: currRingHdl = saved_skeleton currRingHdl.data.uring = singular_ring_reference(currRing)
Incidentally, doesn't currRingHdl
count as a ring reference? The code in SingularFunction
that started this whole thing seems to indicate this. In that case the only singular_ring_delete(R)
that can trigger nulling of currRingHdl
and currRing
is when the explicit intention is
singular_ring_delete(currRingHdl.data.uring)
. When decreffing any other pointer that just happens to be pointing to the same ring structure, there would still be a refcount left, so no actual deletion would take place.
Note that after singular_ring_delete(currRingHdl.data.uring)
we should absolutely NULL currRingHdl.data.uring
(probably safer/better to do currRingHdl=NULL
) even if deallocation didn't occur, because we should remove the reference. Therefore, I find it surprising that rKill
does do a currRingHdl=NULL
conditionally internally. With correct usage, rKill
should never execute that code usefully, because it needs to happen unconditionally outside of rKill
if it ever happens. Is it there as a safety net against sloppy programming?
Note that doing singular_ring_delete(currRing)
is nearly always wrong, because currRing
is a borrowed reference as far as I understand.
Are we the only ones ever setting currRingHdl
or can one write/call singular functions that internally will change currRingHdl
?
If the former holds, the code becomes a little easier to reason about and then we can make our own provisions and ensure they are followed properly (such as saving a skeleton).
In the latter case we really have to play by Singular's rules, because Singular might be doing the deallocating outside of our control.
comment:73 Changed 10 years ago by
Replying to nbruin:
Replying to SimonKing:
I think one potential problem with our current use of
currRingHdl
in combination withrKill
is that we would redefinemy_awesome_sage_ring
, hence, we would see the following message on stderr:// ** redefining my_awesome_sage_ring **I suspect the records do get cleared, because otherwise Singular would leave a dangling pointer around and one would have what is essentially a singular ring variable with NULL pointer to a ring or a pointer to unallocated memory . If those variables do get properly removed, by the time we have to redefine the thing there should be no trace of the original and hence it would not be a redefinition.
I am afraid Singular knows that the mock ring has been defined. OK, that's relative to #12313. But it happened when I did
sage: from sage.rings.polynomial.plural import SCA sage: E = SCA(QQ, ['x', 'y', 'z'], [0, 1], order = 'degrevlex') sage: import gc sage: del E sage: _ = gc.collect() sage: E = SCA(QQ, ['x', 'y', 'z'], [0, 1], order = 'degrevlex')
#12313 is needed to make E collectable.
Hans didn't answer, but I found out myself: currRingHdl=rFindHdl(currRing,NULL,NULL)
, which could still be NULL. If it is NULL, then we may create the mock ring.
Are we the only ones ever setting
currRingHdl
or can one write/call singular functions that internally will changecurrRingHdl
?
No idea.
comment:74 followup: 76 Changed 10 years ago by
I have attached a new version of the patch. Here are a few comments:
For easier debugging, I created methods returning the refcount for RingWrap
and for polynomial rings, and for galgebras.
Concerning singular_function
currRingHdl
is now taken care of when the function is called, and not when it is created. In that way, one prevents nastinesses like currRingHdl
being NULL because of a previous deallocation. When creating it currRing
is guaranteed to exist. I call rFindHdl(currRing,NULL,NULL)
, which may find a previously defined thingy. If it can not be found, a mock ring is created by
currRingHdl = enterid("my_awesome_sage_ring", 0, RING_CMD, &IDROOT, 0)
Since the last argument is 0, we can then do
currRingHdl.data.uring = currRing
without the need to call rDelete(currRingHdl.data.uring)
. Problem: See below.
Since currRing
is now not necessarily available when initialising SingularKernelFunction
, it is impossible to determine its arity during initialisation, but fortunately it is still possible to determine whether the function exists in the Singular kernel.
Therefore, during __init__
, I merely test for existence, while the creation of self.call_handler
is postponed to a point were currRing
is guaranteed to be around.
Since Hans said that we need to make sure that currRing>ref
is positive when calling an interpreter function, I temporarily increment the counter during the call.
Concerning ref counting
I think we should simply rely on Singular's rKill
for deletion of rings, so that internal data are taken care of.
currRingHdl.data.uring
and currRing
do not constitute a reference in the sense of "interpreter variable". Therefor I am not incrementing or decrementing the refcount on them (unless I missed something).
Because of ref counting based at 1, a naked MPolynomialRing_libsingular
and NCPolynomialRing_plural
should have self._ring.ref == 0
, so that self._ring
can be properly deleted. All other ringrelated data, such as a Gröbner strategy or elements of the ring, constitute a new reference.
The same should hold for a RingWrap
: If one has a naked RingWrap
then the underlying ring should be deletable when deleting RingWrap
. A complication arises if both a RingWrap
and a polynomial ring refer to the same underlying libsingular ring.
This occurs in NCPolynomialRing_plural
, which is created from a ring wrap. I do
cdef RingWrap rw = ncalgebra(self._c, self._d, ring = P) # rw._output() self._ring = singular_ring_reference(rw._ring)
hence incref, because at the end of the initialisation of self, rw
will be deleted, so that the refcount for self._ring
will then be fine. The same holds for new_CRing
and new_NRing
in sage.rings.polynomial.plural.
Some experiments with the new patch
Worst of all: I did not run the tests yet.
Here is a test whether there is a memleak when creating a supercommutative algebra repeatedly. Note that one needs
$ hg qa trac_715_combined.patch trac_715_local_refcache.patch trac_715_safer.patch trac_715_specification.patch trac_11521_homset_weakcache_combined.patch trac_11521_callback.patch 13145.patch trac12215_weak_cached_functionsk.patch trac12215_segfault_fixes.patch trac_12313mono_dictcombinedrandomsk.patch trac_12313_quit_sage.patch trac13370_deprecate_is_field.patch trac_13447sanitise_ring_refcount.patch
because otherwise super commutative algebras could not be garbage collected.
sage: from sage.rings.polynomial.plural import SCA sage: import gc sage: while 1: ....: E = SCA(QQ, ['x', 'y', 'z'], [0, 1], order = 'degrevlex') ....: print get_memory_usage(),id(E) ....: del E ....: _ = gc.collect() ....: 223.98828125 4520110400 223.98828125 4520102992 223.98828125 4520145584 223.98828125 4520100800 223.98828125 4520190656 223.98828125 4520116128 223.98828125 4516130448 223.98828125 4520183424 223.98828125 4338291168 223.98828125 4520148816 223.98828125 4520173408 223.98828125 4510376384 223.98828125 4520106672 ...
Conclusion: There is no leak, even though it really is a new ring each time.
However, not all is good. Namely, we interrupt the computation above, and continue as follows:
sage: from sage.libs.singular.function import singular_function sage: P.<x,y,z> = PolynomialRing(QQ) sage: ringlist = singular_function("ringlist") sage: l = ringlist(P) // ** redefining my_awesome_sage_ring **
So, here you see the problem with creating the mock ring. I can only hope that Hans will tell us how one can create a currRingHdl
for a given currRing
, rather than only finding a previously created currRingHdl
.
Because of that last problem, I think it doesn't make much sense to test. However, comments are welcome.
comment:75 Changed 10 years ago by
Unfortunately one gets a segfault in the tests of sage/rings/polynomial/multi_polynomial_ideal.py, apparently related with a singular_function call (namely in the method variety
).
Too bad. I really thought that the new approach towards refcounting is safe.
comment:76 Changed 10 years ago by
However, not all is good. Namely, we interrupt the computation above, and continue as follows:
sage: from sage.libs.singular.function import singular_function sage: P.<x,y,z> = PolynomialRing(QQ) sage: ringlist = singular_function("ringlist") sage: l = ringlist(P) // ** redefining my_awesome_sage_ring **
I think what your code does, is look up if there is a Singular variable that points to currRing
. If so, you use that one and you let the Singular variable my_awesome_sage_ring
dangling in the system. If you don't find a Singular variable pointing to currRing
then you (re)create the variable my_awesome_ring
to refer to currRing
. But it could be that that variable is alive and well, happily pointing at some other ring (that once was currRing
). I think the system probably has good reason to complain.
What you should probably do is create my_awesome_sage_ring
, keep a pointer to it, and refcount rings that you let it point to. Now you're simply holding a singular variable reference to a ring. When you need currRingHdl
to point somewhere, you can do that via my_awesome_sage_ring
. If you need to NULL currRingHdl
, you can do so without consequence. You still keep your own pointer to my_awesome_sage_ring
.
It means that the ring pointed to by my_awesome_sage_ring
is protected against garbage collection, but that's correct: We're holding a reference to it! Such rings will become eligible for deletion once my_awesome_sage_ring
is made to point elsewhere. If you don't like rings that were currRing
to survive until currRingHdl
is actually needed to point elsewhere, you could NULL the data.uring
field of my_awesome_sage_ring
as soon as you get a chance, but I wouldn't bother.
I haven't traced through your precise usage, but grabbing and dropping Singular variables without adapting reference counts sounds fishy to me and liable to lead to segfault.
I'm pretty sure currRingHdl
is just a Singular Interpreter level entry to currRing
and probably in the singular interpreter, the current ring is always only a ring that actually has a name in the interpreter, so currRingHdl
is simply a borrowed reference to that variable. That's why currRingHdl
manipulations in singular do not involve refcounting (I haven't checked, but it seems to me you claim they don't): The rings themselves are refcounted, but that has already happened when the handle struct that currRingHdl
is pointing at was instantiated. That struct is surving independent of currRingHdl
because it represents a variable binding in the singular interpreter and therefore is probably indexed in some tree, linked list or hash table (i.e., the index that rFindHdl
goes digging in).
comment:77 followup: 78 Changed 10 years ago by
I guess the recreation of my_awesome_sage_ring can be avoided, because Singular certainly has methods to return a previously defined ring when you know the name of that ring. So, no need that Sage keeps a pointer to it, because Singular already does.
The segfault in sage/rings/polynomial/multi_polynomial_ideal.pyx can be avoided by setting ref=1
rather than ref=0
in the function singular_ring_new
. However, I wouldn't call it a "fix", because I think this would mean the ring could never be rKill
ed.
So, I suspect that the reference count goes wrong in a different location.
comment:78 followup: 79 Changed 10 years ago by
Replying to SimonKing:
I guess the recreation of my_awesome_sage_ring can be avoided, because Singular certainly has methods to return a previously defined ring when you know the name of that ring.
It is ggetid
.
comment:79 Changed 10 years ago by
Replying to SimonKing:
It is
ggetid
.
Using it does solve the problem with the warning message in comment:74.
In addition, it makes the segfault in sage t devel/sage/sage/rings/polynomial/multi_polynomial_ideal.pyx
disappear  which is a bad news, because instead the test hangs during some call to a singular_function...
Changed 10 years ago by
Attachment:  trac_13447attempted_improvement.patch added 

Experiments towards fixing some problems
comment:80 Changed 10 years ago by
I have posted a new patch trac_13447attempted_improvement.patch. According to Hans, it may happen that Singular functions return NULL, which means that there has been an error. Therefore, I suggest to actually raise a RuntimeError
if the return value is NULL. Apart from that, I postpone another ggetid
call to a location where currRing
is guaranteed to exist; however, according to Hans, that call to ggetid
(namely in the case of a library functions) should be fine also without currRing
.
Here is the problem:
sage t verbose devel/sage/sage/rings/polynomial/multi_polynomial_ideal.py ... Trying: R = QQ['a, b']; (a, b,) = R._first_ngens(2); I = R.ideal(a**Integer(2)+b**Integer(2)Integer(1))###line 3581:_sage_ >>> R.<a,b> = QQ[]; I = R.ideal(a^2+b^21) Expecting nothing ok Trying: Q = QuotientRing(R,I); K = Frac(Q)###line 3582:_sage_ >>> Q = QuotientRing(R,I); K = Frac(Q) Expecting nothing // ** char_series returns 0 x 0 matrix from 2 input polys (0) I[1,1]=b2+a21*** *** Error: TIMED OUT! PROCESS KILLED! *** *** [360.3 s]
I have absolutely no idea why that happens.
The error occurs in the Singular library function primdecSY
. I did check that currRing
is definitely not NULL when calling the function, currRingHdl.data.uring==currRing
, and there are plenty of references to currRing
. Moreover, the error does not occur if one copies the whole example (which is from the groebner_basis method) into an interactive session.
primdecSY
hangs, there is no return value (not even NULL).
Since there is no segfault, I guess gdb would not help here. Since currRing is referenced several times, I guess that it has not been doublefreed  but who knows? Can it be that a ring was doublefreed, then a new ring was created in the same location, and then an error occurs when working with that new ring?
For now:
Apply trac_13447sanitise_ring_refcount.patch trac_13447attempted_improvement.patch
comment:81 Changed 10 years ago by
By the way, has anyone preserved an old version of trac_13447sanitise_ring_refcount.patch? It used to work well, although Nils had some objections.
Here is the result of the test suite:
sage t force_lib devel/sage/sage/rings/polynomial/multi_polynomial_ideal.py # Time out sage t force_lib devel/sage/doc/de/tutorial/tour_advanced.rst # Time out sage t force_lib devel/sage/doc/en/tutorial/tour_advanced.rst # Time out sage t force_lib devel/sage/doc/fr/tutorial/tour_advanced.rst # Time out sage t force_lib devel/sage/doc/ru/tutorial/tour_advanced.rst # Time out sage t force_lib devel/sage/sage/libs/singular/function.pyx # 5 doctests failed sage t force_lib devel/sage/sage/schemes/generic/algebraic_scheme.py # Time out
Looks like a lot of work. Fortunately, the errors in function.pyx seem to be a bit more "expressive" than the timeouts.
comment:82 Changed 10 years ago by
I found something fishy with the refcount during sage.libs.singular.function.call_function
.
I changed the code as follows:
# In the Singular interpreter, we must ensure that currRing>ref > 0. si_ring.ref += 1 cdef int orig_ref = si_ring.ref # CHANGE: store the reference count try: with opt_ctx: # we are preserving the global options state here if signal_handler: sig_on() _res = self.call_handler.handle_call(argument_list, si_ring) sig_off() else: _res = self.call_handler.handle_call(argument_list, si_ring) if myynest: myynest = 0 if currentVoice: currentVoice = NULL if errorreported: errorreported = 0 raise RuntimeError("Error in Singular function call '%s':\n %s"% (self._name, "\n ".join(error_messages))) if si_ring.ref!=orig_ref: # CHANGE: Test if Singular has changed the refcount ff = file("/Users/SimonKing/blubber","a") ff.write( "Here is something fishy!\n") ff.close() res = argument_list.to_python(_res) ...
When running the failing sage t devel/sage/sage/rings/polynomial/multi_polynomial_ideal.py
, the refcount changes exactly once before the test hangs.
It is definitely not supposed to happen that Singular changes the refcount of currRing
. Changes in the ref counter should only happen in the next line, when the results are converted to python (any polynomial will increase the refcount by one).
I don't know yet what function is causing the trouble  but I hope I'll find out soon...
comment:83 Changed 10 years ago by
I found: Applying the function ringlist
decreases the ref counter of currRing
, while gwalk
increases the counter.
Since the number of references by Sage objects does not change, this is asking for trouble, I suppose.
comment:84 Changed 10 years ago by
Anyway. I'd really appreciate if someone could find a copy of the old patch version. I think the new one is worse, and I simply do not have the time to work on it now.
comment:85 followup: 86 Changed 10 years ago by
I haven't looked at this ticket, but could you also check that #12188 is resolved, it looks related.
comment:86 Changed 10 years ago by
comment:87 Changed 10 years ago by
Cc:  JeanPierre Flori added 

comment:88 followup: 89 Changed 10 years ago by
Replying to SimonKing:
Replying to nbruin:
We have:
def __dealloc__(self): celement_destruct(&self.x, get_cparent((<Polynomial_template>self)._parent))and for us:
get_cparent(parent) == <ntl_ZZ_pEContext_class>(parent._modulus)The
_parent
attribute is a cython slot.Interestingly, there is no complaint about a missing attribute
_parent
. It is_modulus
that is missing.However, it holds a reference to a pythonmanaged object, so I think cython ensures it's properly taken into account in GC cycle counting. But that would suggest to me python could clear this slot to break cycles! So in that case,
Polynomial_template
is never safe. It could be I'm wrong, however.I think you are right. The
__dealloc__
ofPolynomial_template
is unsafe, unless polynomial rings will stay in memory forever. But I'd love to hear that we are wrong, because otherwise each polynomial would need a pointer to the cdata expected to be returned byget_cparent((<Polynomial_template>self)._parent)
, and we'd need to take into account reference counting for the cparent during creation and deletion of polynomials.Or perhaps there is a way out. We have a polynomial ring R and we have some elements a,b,c,... Each element points to R, and R points to some of its elements, namely to its generators. The problem is that deallocation of the elements is only possible as long as R is alive.
If we'd manually incref R upon creation of an element x, decrefing R when x gets deallocated, then we would ensure that R will survive until the last of its elements is deleted. Or would that mean that the elements will survive as well, because of the reference from R to its generators? Edit: Yes it would.
FYI, the cdefed pointer _parent stuff was added in #12313. Have a look at http://trac.sagemath.org/sage_trac/ticket/12313#comment:13
comment:89 followup: 90 Changed 10 years ago by
Replying to jpflori:
FYI, the cdefed pointer _parent stuff was added in #12313. Have a look at http://trac.sagemath.org/sage_trac/ticket/12313#comment:13
Oh boy. So, do we have another circular dependency, meaning that this ticket depends on #12313? Perhaps we should apply Python's cyclic garbage collector on my trac tickets :(
Anyway, I am currently unable to do any programming, since I very urgently have a manuscript to write.
comment:90 Changed 10 years ago by
Replying to SimonKing:
Replying to jpflori:
FYI, the cdefed pointer _parent stuff was added in #12313. Have a look at http://trac.sagemath.org/sage_trac/ticket/12313#comment:13
Oh boy. So, do we have another circular dependency, meaning that this ticket depends on #12313? Perhaps we should apply Python's cyclic garbage collector on my trac tickets :(
Does #12313 depends on this ticket? I see Jeroen recently put it as a dependency there but with no explanation. I've now quite read everything here, but it still looks mysterious to me why this was done. Any explanation welcomed :)
comment:91 Changed 10 years ago by
Trying an explanation:
#715 plus #11521 in their original versions resulted in trouble. A solution (that is not acceptable for my own work, but might be OK for "usual" applications of Sage) is to reinstate the strong cache of polynomial rings  see the last patch on #715.
If I am not mistaken, #715 plus #11521 in these versions have a positive review, without #13447.
Now, why did I put #13447 as an explicit reference at #12313? I guess that is because (1) I thought that #13447 is close to being fixed (I was mistaken...) and (2) the patchbot got confused by the circular dependency #715 <> #11521.
But who knows. I am currently not really in the condition to do coding.
comment:92 Changed 10 years ago by
Description:  modified (diff) 

comment:93 followup: 94 Changed 10 years ago by
Hi!
What's the status of this patch? It's at the bottom of my dependency list for category patches :)
Cheers,
Nicolas
comment:94 followup: 96 Changed 10 years ago by
Replying to nthiery:
What's the status of this patch? It's at the bottom of my dependency list for category patches :)
IIRC, it was found that part of the problem was an upstream bug, that got fixed. And we meanwhile have a weak cache for polynomial rings. Hence, the original problem seems to be solved.
However, we may see whether it makes sense to use the existing reference counter from Singular, rather than relying on our custom reference counter. It might be conceptually better, though not necessarily more stable.
What do the other participants of this ticket think?
comment:95 followup: 100 Changed 10 years ago by
If the leak is now fixed, we could or even should just add some doctest proving it here, and open another ticket for using the singular ref system rather than ours.
comment:96 followup: 97 Changed 10 years ago by
Replying to SimonKing:
However, we may see whether it makes sense to use the existing reference counter from Singular, rather than relying on our custom reference counter. It might be conceptually better, though not necessarily more stable.
I think it's a little more than just conceptual. Some rings may be created by direct library calls from sage. Other rings may be generated internally in libsingular. These rings can get mixed up, meaning that a sage created ring might end up being referenced only directly by some internal libsingular data structure and rings created internally to libsingular might end up being referenced by sage.
For reliable, nonleaking memory management you'll have to use the same refcounter in such a situation.
In libecl a different approach is taken: Every lisp object referenced from sage is referenced via a python proxy object that creates a binding to the referenced object in lisp, to prevent garbage collection. The deallocation routine for the proxy includes removal of the lisp binding. We could do that too, but last time it seemed we were relatively close to deciphering libsingular's conventions for handling its refcount.
comment:97 followup: 98 Changed 10 years ago by
Replying to nbruin:
Replying to SimonKing:
However, we may see whether it makes sense to use the existing reference counter from Singular, rather than relying on our custom reference counter. It might be conceptually better, though not necessarily more stable.
I think it's a little more than just conceptual. Some rings may be created by direct library calls from sage. Other rings may be generated internally in libsingular. These rings can get mixed up,
I don't think so.
According to Hans Schönemann, the internal refcount is only relevant in the Singular user interface. One could argue that libsingular replaces the Singular's user interface and should thus use the same refcounting than the user interface. However, internal calls in Singular will not change the refcount.
For reliable, nonleaking memory management you'll have to use the same refcounter in such a situation.
See above: The refcounter is not used internally in Singular (only for the user interface), I think.
comment:98 followup: 99 Changed 10 years ago by
Replying to SimonKing:
One could argue that libsingular replaces the Singular's user interface...
To be precise: Our use of libsingular for constructing polynomial rings in Sage could be considered as something like the Singular user interface.
comment:99 Changed 10 years ago by
Replying to SimonKing:
To be precise: Our use of libsingular for constructing polynomial rings in Sage could be considered as something like the Singular user interface.
I haven't looked at the code in a long time, but I know that at the time, I noticed that we DO call into the interpreter, at the very least in the doctests that test something about "functions" in singular.
I also recall that in some of the noncommutative stuff, singular goes off and creates a bunch of polynomial rings, in ways that seemed to me equivalent to what happens in the singular interpreter.
Unsurprisingly, those were the areas where we got problems when we started messing with the code.
comment:100 Changed 10 years ago by
Replying to jpflori:
If the leak is now fixed, we could or even should just add some doctest proving it here, and open another ticket for using the singular ref system rather than ours.
It's not fixed. See sage/rings/polynomial/multi_polynomial_libsingular.pyx:369 libsingular multivariate polynomial rings are still nailed in memory.
comment:101 Changed 10 years ago by
Cc:  Burcin Erocal added 

comment:102 Changed 10 years ago by
So what shall we do?
#12876 has been basically sitting there for one year with a positive review, just waiting for dependencies. There only remains this one. And I now have to rebase it once more because #13184 jumped in the middle the way, reimplementing a little piece of #12876.
Would it be reasonable, or not, to consider that #12876 does not depend on this guy?
Cheers,
Nicolas
comment:103 followup: 104 Changed 10 years ago by
comment:104 Changed 10 years ago by
Replying to jpflori:
From what I read, #13447 was added because the ticket depended on #11521 which was though to depend on #13447. But in the end it was not the case (#11521 is merged now), so just remove it and get your ticket merged!
Hey, that's excellent news! Thanks for the quick overview. I'll post a rebased and retested patch for #12876 shortly.
comment:105 Changed 9 years ago by
Milestone:  sage5.11 → sage5.12 

comment:106 Changed 9 years ago by
Milestone:  sage6.1 → sage6.2 

comment:107 Changed 9 years ago by
Milestone:  sage6.2 → sage6.3 

comment:108 Changed 8 years ago by
Milestone:  sage6.3 → sage6.4 

comment:109 Changed 8 years ago by
I just stumbled into to this in sage/libs/singular/function.pyx:949 in to_python:
elif rtyp == POLY_CMD: #FIXME res_poly = MPolynomial_libsingular(self._sage_ring) res_poly._poly = <poly*>to_convert.data to_convert.data = NULL #prevent it getting free, when cleaning the leftv return res_poly
this looks like the simple transfer of ownership of a reference here, but if some of the comments on this ticket quoting Schoenemann are correct and Singular indeed has a mix of refcounted and nonrefcounted uses (depending on whether objects are actively interfaced in the interpreter or not) then this step might need attention: the leftv arriving here almost certainly is coming from the interpreter (via SingularFunction) and the res_poly object possibly shouldn't be considered as such.
Any new attempt at resolving this ticket should probably look into this bit of code too.
comment:110 followup: 111 Changed 7 years ago by
Should we have a look how much of the issues tracked here are now fixed by #18905?
I still think we should switch to use Singular's cslot for refcounting. What we currently do: Create a python object from a libsingular ring*
and put it into a Python dictionary, where the number of references is stored. Wouldn't it be a lot faster to store the number of references in a cslot?
If we use it, then I still think it makes sense to adopt Singular's convention on that cslot: It counts the number of references minus one.
My suggestion: For testing, I create a branch based on #18905 that uses both ways of refcounting in parallel, asserting consistency. If that passes doctests, then we can safely remove the old slow refcounting system.
comment:111 Changed 7 years ago by
Replying to SimonKing:
If we use it, then I still think it makes sense to adopt Singular's convention on that cslot: It counts the number of references minus one.
OTOH, it really seems awkward: A fresh ring that we get out of libsingular will have .ref==0
. Thus, it is supposed to have a reference already. But there is no reference yet.
comment:112 Changed 7 years ago by
Something else: Currently, each polynomial constitutes a reference to the libsingular ring*
. But I think it is not the job of polynomials to care about managing ring references. Only Sage's polynomial rings should care.
comment:113 followup: 114 Changed 7 years ago by
If you have a better way of keeping track of the libsingular ring's then that would be great.
Afaik the reason for keeping a reference to the ring in MPolynomial_libsingular
is efficiency, basically every libsingular call also needs the ring as argument so you want to avoid the extra indirection trough MPolynomialRing_libsingular
.
comment:114 followup: 115 Changed 7 years ago by
Replying to vbraun:
If you have a better way of keeping track of the libsingular ring's then that would be great.
Afaik the reason for keeping a reference to the ring in
MPolynomial_libsingular
is efficiency, basically every libsingular call also needs the ring as argument so you want to avoid the extra indirection troughMPolynomialRing_libsingular
.
Yes, that shortcut still is reasonable and shouldn't be changed. However, there should be no need to take the time and increase the reference count.
comment:115 Changed 7 years ago by
Replying to SimonKing:
Yes, that shortcut still is reasonable and shouldn't be changed. However, there should be no need to take the time and increase the reference count.
... because we also have the polynomial ring that keeps a (counted) reference to the libsingular ring.
comment:116 Changed 7 years ago by
If I understood correctly, singular functions are supposed to leave the .reffield alone, unless a ring in the interpreter is concerned. However, I found that using the singular_function
"ringlist" does decrease the reference count for the current ring. That's annoying.
Could it in fact be an artefact of how singular_function
is implemented? If I recall correctly ringlist(R)
is a bit tricky: It should return a list defined in the *current* ring, but with data defining R. So, perhaps we are somehow messing up currRing
versus the ring that is given as argument.
comment:117 Changed 7 years ago by
And then of course the question is under what circumstances it occurs. In the doctests of sage.libs.singular, ringlist
was the only function exhibiting such behaviour. Is it because its argument is a ring? Are there other kernel functions that may change the reference count? Are there library functions that can change the reference count? I think that's highly likely, since there are functions returning a ring that was created inside of the function.
comment:118 Changed 4 years ago by
I am trying to revive this ticket.
In a branch that I am currently testing, I change the .ref
field of Singular's ring
struct whenever Sage's ring refcount is operating, and assert that always both refcounts are consistent.
However, in the following example
sage: R.<x,y,z> = GF(3)[] sage: I = R*R.gens() sage: I.groebner_basis()
I find that Sage counts 8 references for some ring, but Singular counts 9 references for the same ring. Perhaps Singular is increasing the refcount internally and isn't resetting it, but I need to investigate it.
comment:119 Changed 4 years ago by
I found two spots in which the ref counting currently is not consequently done:
SingularFunction.__init__
: In some cases it artificially creates a ring and sets.ref = 1
, but ignores it in Sage's own refcounting.call_function
: When it changescurrRingHdl
from the previously used to the current ring, it modifies.ref
but ignores Sage's own refcounting.
So, that's where Singular's and Sage's ring refcounts get out of sync.
comment:120 followup: 121 Changed 4 years ago by
It turns out that my_awesome_sage_ring
created in SingularFunction.__init__
gives a core dump when being collected. So, there is something fundamentally wrong here.
comment:121 followup: 122 Changed 4 years ago by
Replying to SimonKing:
It turns out that
my_awesome_sage_ring
created inSingularFunction.__init__
gives a core dump when being collected. So, there is something fundamentally wrong here.
If I understand correctly, my_awesome_sage_ring
is just some ring that is there to make Singular happy, although it is defunct and cannot be deleted. So, in the current code, its ref count in Singular is increased in order to prevent it from being deleted.
Three potential solutions: Either create a fully fledged ring that can be collected. Or reference it twice, so that it will stay in memory till the Sage session ends (that's what is currently happening). Or find a cleaner solution.
comment:122 Changed 4 years ago by
Replying to SimonKing:
Or find a cleaner solution.
Instead of creating a defunct ring, one could use currRing
. That is possible because even directly after starting sage currRing
is available.
comment:123 Changed 4 years ago by
Meanwhile I believe that the approach to use libsingular's ring>ref
counter to count ring references will not work. As it turns out, some Singular functions do change the value stored in >ref
, some don't. Therefore, Sage shouldn't mess with it.
OTOH, the old implementation of refcounting is quite inefficient: Given a ring*
, create a RingWrap, use it as a dictionary key in a defaultdict(int)
that counts the references  and the creation (and subsequent deletion) of a RingWrap occurs each time a ring*
gets referenced or dereferenced!
If r
is a ring*
for which we want to count references, it would be an improvement to simply use <long>r
as key of the abovementioned defaultdict(int)
. After all, comparison of the RingWrap of r
would also just rely on <long>r
. So, that approach would be better than the current implementation, because it avoids the creation and deletion of a python wrapper.
But somehow I would find it better to equip MPolynomialRing_libsingular
and all other libsingular wrappers with a new slot cdef int *_ring_ref
. When a new ring is created, the corresponding _ring_ref
would get allocated with a single int. If two different Sage objects wrap the same ring*
then they would also share the same _ring_ref
pointer. And the pointer would be passed as an argument to singular_ring_ref
and singular_ring_delete
, where the int being pointed at would be incremented or decremented, thus counting the number of references.
So, instead of a central defaultdict(int)
storing all reference counts, there would for each ring be a pointer to an int. I implemented it. For debugging, I currently have BOTH the old and the new refcount in parallel and test whether they are consistent. It turns out that they are!
Nonetheless I get segfaults and errors in the doctests, but actually not very many:
sage t src/sage/rings/polynomial/plural.pyx # Killed due to segmentation fault sage t src/sage/rings/polynomial/multi_polynomial_ideal.py # Killed due to segmentation fault sage t src/sage/libs/singular/groebner_strategy.pyx # Killed due to segmentation fault sage t src/sage/libs/singular/function.pyx # 4 doctests failed sage t src/sage/tests/cmdline.py # 1 doctest failed sage t src/sage/schemes/curves/curve.py # 1 doctest failed sage t src/sage/schemes/curves/affine_curve.py # 1 doctest failed
So, I am confident that the new approach will soon work, and I am also confident that it will be faster than the old approach. But how could it be measured? Ring refcounting also happens in MPolynomial_libsingular
, not only in MPolynomialRing_libsingular
. Hence, a benchmark involving the creation and deletion of many polynomials would probably reveal a speedup.
comment:124 Changed 4 years ago by
Branch:  → u/SimonKing/make_libsingular_multivariate_polynomial_rings_collectable 

comment:125 Changed 4 years ago by
Commit:  → d6a3d48d2a3705e52de6b6ec6b4cacd7bbd1ffa0 

The commit that I just posted implements the new approach to refcounting:
 Each singular object that relies on a libsingular ring should have a pointer to that ring (
ring *_ring
), and in addition an intpointer for the refcount of that ring (`int *_ring_ref)  If
self
is created using a new ringr
, then we would haveself._ring_ref = <int*>sig_calloc(1, sizeof(int)) self._ring = singular_ring_reference(r, self._ring_ref)
 If
self
is created using a ring that is referenced byother
, then we would haveself._ring_ref = other._ring_ref self._ring = singular_ring_reference(other._ring, self._ring_ref)
 For deallocation, one does
Note that it is not needed to do
singular_ring_delete(self._ring, self._ring_ref)
sig_free(self._ring_ref)
, because this is done inside ofsingular_ring_delete(self._ring, self._ring_ref)
when there remain no references toself._ring
.
In the commit, I am not removing the old refcounting approach. This is for testing purposes: I assert that the old and the new refcount coincide, to demonstrate that the new approach works.
Next step will be to remove the old refcount, and to find a way to replace the doctests for the old refcount.
Question: Would it make sense to add a function that would automatically test that all rings created after "from sage import all" are properly deleted when Sage is shut down?
New commits:
d6a3d48  trac13447: new refcount implementation for libsingular rings

comment:126 Changed 4 years ago by
Authors:  Nils Bruin, Simon King → Simon King 

Report Upstream:  None of the above  read trac for reasoning. → N/A 
Reviewers:  Simon King 
Work issues:  Understand why sometimes `new_RingWrap` needs an incref and sometimes not 
comment:127 Changed 4 years ago by
PS: So far the ultimate goal to ensure that more rings are collected is not addressed.
Without the branch:
sage: from sage.libs.singular.groebner_strategy import NCGroebnerStrategy ## line 333 ## ....: A.<x,y,z> = FreeAlgebra(QQ, 3) ## line 334 ## ....: H.<x,y,z> = A.g_algebra({y*x:x*yz, z*x:x*z+2*x, z*y:y*z2*y}) ## line 335 ## ....: I = H.ideal([y^2, x^2, z^2H.one()]) ## line 336 ## ....: strat = NCGroebnerStrategy(I) #random ## line 337 ## ....: del strat, I, x,y,z,H, A ....: import gc ....: gc.collect() ....: 155 sage: sum(sage.libs.singular.ring.ring_refcount_dict.values()) 17
With the branch:
sage: from sage.libs.singular.groebner_strategy import NCGroebnerStrategy ## line 333 ## ....: A.<x,y,z> = FreeAlgebra(QQ, 3) ## line 334 ## ....: H.<x,y,z> = A.g_algebra({y*x:x*yz, z*x:x*z+2*x, z*y:y*z2*y}) ## line 335 ## ....: I = H.ideal([y^2, x^2, z^2H.one()]) ## line 336 ## ....: strat = NCGroebnerStrategy(I) #random ## line 337 ## ....: del strat, I, x,y,z,H, A ....: import gc ....: gc.collect() ....: 175 sage: sum(sage.libs.singular.ring.ring_refcount_dict.values()) 17
But that's not a surprise since the first commit changes the mechanism of the refcount, but not the number of references.
comment:128 Changed 4 years ago by
I inserted print statements whenever certain rings/algebras and elements are created or deallocated, and found that in the following code
sage: from sage.libs.singular.groebner_strategy import NCGroebnerStrategy ....: A.<x,y,z> = FreeAlgebra(QQ, 3) ....: H.<x,y,z> = A.g_algebra({y*x:x*yz, z*x:x*z+2*x, z*y:y*z2*y}) ....: I = H.ideal([y^2, x^2, z^2H.one()]) ....: strat = NCGroebnerStrategy(I) ....: del strat, I, x,y,z,H, A ....: import gc ....: gc.collect()
the GAlgebra H
is garbage collected and its underlying libsingular ring is properly deleted. However, the free algebra is not garbage collected, and the polynomial ring involved in the creation of the free algebra isn't garbage collected either.
So, there is a memory leak, but I suppose it is because of improper strong references in Sage's coercion system, not because of references to libsingular rings.
comment:129 Changed 4 years ago by
Here is an assessment for the time needed to increment or decrement the reference count in the various approaches. I am using
from cpython.object cimport Py_EQ, Py_NE from cysignals.memory cimport sig_calloc, sig_free from collections import defaultdict refcount_dict = defaultdict(int) cdef int total_refcount = 0 cdef class Wrap(object): cdef void *p def __hash__(self): return <long>(self.p) def __richcmp__(Wrap self, other, int op): if not (op == Py_EQ or op == Py_NE): return NotImplemented if type(other) is not Wrap: return op != Py_EQ return (self.p == (<Wrap>other).p) == (op == Py_EQ) cdef inline wrap(void *p): cdef Wrap W = Wrap.__new__(Wrap) W.p = p return W cdef inline void *incref1(void *p): refcount_dict[wrap(p)] += 1 return p cdef inline void decref1(void *p): cdef Wrap W = wrap(p) cdef int c = refcount_dict[W]  1 if c == 0: del refcount_dict[W] else: refcount_dict[W] = c cdef inline void *incref2(void *p): refcount_dict[<long>p] += 1 return p cdef inline void decref2(void *p): cdef int c = refcount_dict[<long>p] 1 if c == 0: del refcount_dict[<long>p] else: refcount_dict[<long>p] = c cdef inline void *incref3(void *p, int *count): count[0] += 1 return p cdef inline void decref3(void *p, int *count): count[0] = 1 cdef inline void *incref4(void *p, int *count): global total_refcount total_refcount += 1 count[0] += 1 return p cdef inline void decref4(void *p, int *count): global total_refcount total_refcount = 1 count[0] = 1 cpdef test1(long x): cdef int i cdef void *X = <void *>x for i in range(1000): X = incref1(X) decref1(X) cpdef test2(long x): cdef int i cdef void *X = <void *>x for i in range(1000): X = incref1(X) decref1(X) cpdef test3(long x): cdef int i cdef int *Count = <int*>sig_calloc(1, sizeof(int)) cdef void *X = <void *>x for i in range(1000): X = incref3(X, Count) decref3(X, Count) sig_free(Count) cpdef test4(long x): cdef int i cdef int *Count = <int*>sig_calloc(1, sizeof(int)) cdef void *X = <void *>x for i in range(1000): X = incref4(X, Count) decref4(X, Count) sig_free(Count)
and with that I get
sage: %timeit test1(123456) 1000 loops, best of 3: 362 µs per loop sage: %timeit test2(123456) 1000 loops, best of 3: 366 µs per loop sage: %timeit test3(123456) The slowest run took 111.51 times longer than the fastest. This could mean that an intermediate result is being cached. 10000000 loops, best of 3: 126 ns per loop sage: %timeit test4(123456) The slowest run took 46.28 times longer than the fastest. This could mean that an intermediate result is being cached. 10000000 loops, best of 3: 129 ns per loop
Conclusion
 test1 is how reference count in sage.libs.singular.ring currently works.
 test2 would be a mild modification of test1, and would apparently not be an improvement.
 test3 is the simplest form of my suggestion.
 test4 is a mild modification of my suggestion, making it possible to preserve the doctests that currently involve
sage.libs.singular.ring.ring_refcount_dict
I suppose we can afford 3ns loss per 1000 increments and decrements and thus will implement the fourth version of incref/decref. And then we can see if it has an effect on the speed of polynomial arithmetic.
comment:130 Changed 4 years ago by
Commit:  d6a3d48d2a3705e52de6b6ec6b4cacd7bbd1ffa0 → 281fcf9085fe16b8e2e7b0e37a214f44f0e1ebd7 

comment:131 Changed 4 years ago by
Good news!
 With plain Sage, one gets
sage: R.<x,y,z> = QQ[] sage: %timeit p = 2*x^3+x*y*zz^2*x^2 The slowest run took 83.44 times longer than the fastest. This could mean that an intermediate result is being cached. 100000 loops, best of 3: 10 µs per loop
whereas with the two commits of the current branch one getssage: R.<x,y,z> = QQ[] sage: %timeit p = 2*x^3+x*y*zz^2*x^2 The slowest run took 73.46 times longer than the fastest. This could mean that an intermediate result is being cached. 100000 loops, best of 3: 5.37 µs per loop
 Doctests with the current branch pass.
So, it would already make sense to use this. OTOH, the purpose of this ticket is not to speedup polynomial arithmetic but to make multivariate polynomial rings collectable. So, I will next try and remove the strong cache for multivariate polynomial rings, and see what will then happen.
Since I have added ring refcounting not only for the ring itself but also for its elements, it could be that the new code is enough stable to survive deletion of polynomials ring without segfaulting. Keep fingers crossed!
comment:132 followup: 135 Changed 4 years ago by
Perhaps it would be better to make the libsingular and the other multivariate polynomial rings be separate tickets to have more granular changes as they are largely (completely?) independent. This already seems like a bigger ticket and the other change would likely be a bigger changeset as well.
From a quick look, your proposal seems good, but I would have to read it in more detail to confirm. It might also be good for someone who is more experienced with memory management to look at this, but I am willing to set this to a positive review once I do a more thorough code review.
comment:133 Changed 4 years ago by
Commit:  281fcf9085fe16b8e2e7b0e37a214f44f0e1ebd7 → 70c08b09315f9e897fb2dbc6ba748ed6cc681b06 

Branch pushed to git repo; I updated commit sha1. New commits:
70c08b0  trac13447: Remove the strong cache for multivariate polynomials

comment:134 Changed 4 years ago by
Description:  modified (diff) 

Status:  needs_work → needs_review 
Even better news: With the last commit, multivariate polynomial rings can to some extent be garbage collected:
sage: from sage.libs.singular.ring import total_ring_reference_count sage: n = total_ring_reference_count() sage: P.<x,y,z> = GF(19)[] sage: del P,x,y,z sage: import gc sage: _ = gc.collect() sage: n == total_ring_reference_count() True
Hence, the purpose of this ticket is fulfilled. I consider it therefore as "needs review".
Caveat: Arithmetic operations are still preventing a garbage collection. But that seems to be a totally different topic.
sage: P.<x,y,z> = GF(19)[] sage: p = 2*x^3+x*y*zz^2*x^2 sage: del P,x,y,z,p sage: gc.collect() 21 sage: n == total_ring_reference_count() False
comment:135 Changed 4 years ago by
Replying to tscrim:
Perhaps it would be better to make the libsingular and the other multivariate polynomial rings be separate tickets to have more granular changes as they are largely (completely?) independent. This already seems like a bigger ticket and the other change would likely be a bigger changeset as well.
Actually it isn't that big. The first two commits do change a couple of .pxd files, but I consider the changes small. And the third commit really is small: It removes the strong cache, changes test results accordingly.
Therefore, splitting the ticket is not needed. But careful testing: In old attempts to fix this ticket, we saw random segfaults in doctests. I don't see them on my machine, but nonetheless it should better be tested with care on various machines. I am curious what the patchbots have to say...
However, because polynomial rings can still not be collected as soon as an algebraic operation is performed on its elements, I suppose there still is a leak coming from strong references in the coercion system. I believe that THIS really should be on a different ticket. Actually it would make sense to test together with the ticket that introduces "optional weak references" (or how was it called?) to store actions. But what was the ticket number?
Anyway, I think the ticket is now ready for review  changes are relatively small, and tests pass, at least for me...
comment:136 Changed 4 years ago by
Looking at the diff, I see that some changes are still in that I meant to revert (they are leftovers from my failed attempt to use ring>ref
for refcounting).
So, I'll remove these leftovers and see if things still work.
comment:137 Changed 4 years ago by
Commit:  70c08b09315f9e897fb2dbc6ba748ed6cc681b06 → ed736bd8651888944e4bd56149b696c54607e290 

Branch pushed to git repo; I updated commit sha1. New commits:
ed736bd  Remove some leftovers of failed attempts to use ring>ref for refcount

comment:138 Changed 4 years ago by
The latest commit makes the diff with respect to the develop branch a bit smaller and easier to read. Need to test it, though.
comment:139 Changed 4 years ago by
Commit:  ed736bd8651888944e4bd56149b696c54607e290 → 17ff3afc62baf1f149e3338dcf4897df8d7ad1f1 

Branch pushed to git repo; I updated commit sha1. New commits:
17ff3af  Remove some function that has temporarily been used for debugging

comment:140 Changed 4 years ago by
... and another commit that makes the diff smaller: I forgot to delete a function that I temporarily used for debugging. It wasn't documented and used oldstyle print, which made the patchbot plugins complain. Now that aspect should be fine. Hope that the tests work, too...
comment:141 Changed 4 years ago by
The pyflakes plugin complains, but this is in fact in a line that I didn't change. Indeed, some variable n
is redefined, but it isn't used in the rest of the function.
However, another bot complains rightfully: The documentation doesn't cleanly build, because of some .. todo::
. Need to fix it.
comment:142 Changed 4 years ago by
Commit:  17ff3afc62baf1f149e3338dcf4897df8d7ad1f1 → 6e2487dbf8df2c82f2ca1282625f9f1b29a02529 

Branch pushed to git repo; I updated commit sha1. New commits:
6e2487d  Fix formatting of a TODO

comment:143 Changed 4 years ago by
With the latest commit, the documentation builds. But I am not very happy about it: The .. TODO::
block is part of the TESTS:
. However, the TESTS block does not appear in the references, whereas the TODO does appear in the references.
By consequence, the TODO refers to stuff that isn't visible.
Can the reviewer perhaps have a look and decide how to deal with the formatting of the TODO?
comment:144 Changed 4 years ago by
Commit:  6e2487dbf8df2c82f2ca1282625f9f1b29a02529 → 019ca385039f8628a5ed5f16de341efeaf02aa7a 

Branch pushed to git repo; I updated commit sha1. New commits:
019ca38  13447: Do not use a TODO block in a TESTS block

comment:145 Changed 4 years ago by
In the new commit, I am removing the TODO block. Recall: The TODO block is visible in the documentation, but refers to stuff written in a TESTS block and thus is invisible in the documentation.
Of course it is still "needs review". Next, I plan to create a wrapper for Singular's leftv*
, so that it becomes possible to interact with libsingular objects on a very basic (thus, fast) level  of course on a different ticket.
Also it would be nice to understand why polynomial rings can only be collected when no arithmetic operation took place on its elements. But this shall be on yet another ticket.
comment:146 followup: 148 Changed 4 years ago by
Two nitpicks first while I go through things in more detail. Can you change the #~
comments to the usual #
and with the correct indentations? Also, this change
 polynomial rings. Thus, we obtain  :: + polynomial rings. Thus, we obtain::
comment:147 Changed 4 years ago by
Commit:  019ca385039f8628a5ed5f16de341efeaf02aa7a → c978ef1d0d5f1b3695eef827c2f6c1983bd3059a 

Branch pushed to git repo; I updated commit sha1. New commits:
c978ef1  Remove some commented out code

comment:148 Changed 4 years ago by
Replying to tscrim:
Two nitpicks first while I go through things in more detail. Can you change the
#~
comments to the usual#
and with the correct indentations? Also, this change polynomial rings. Thus, we obtain  :: + polynomial rings. Thus, we obtain::
Done. #~
is what geany (the development environment I'm using) inserts when one comments out some lines.
comment:149 followup: 150 Changed 4 years ago by
Thanks, one more little nitpick:
 cached. Therefore we have  :: + cached. Therefore we have::
However, I do have a more broader question: Why are the polynomials holding a reference to the singular ring? If the parent just holds the reference, then it will survive as long as there are polynomials referencing that parent. So it seems like unnecessary overhead both in maintenance and extra function calls.
comment:150 followup: 153 Changed 4 years ago by
Replying to tscrim:
However, I do have a more broader question: Why are the polynomials holding a reference to the singular ring? If the parent just holds the reference, then it will survive as long as there are polynomials referencing that parent.
That's what I originally thought. However, it seems that this is why previous attempts to fix this ticket failed, with segmentation faults in doctests, typically after the actual tests.
If a reference cycle is deleted during cyclic garbage collection, the objects are deallocated in arbitrary order. Hence, a polynomial could be deleted after its parent, and thus it needs a pointer to a valid libsingular ring.
comment:151 Changed 4 years ago by
Commit:  c978ef1d0d5f1b3695eef827c2f6c1983bd3059a → 7feae99bbda7b0eb54c9397c866119f9ccfc320e 

Branch pushed to git repo; I updated commit sha1. New commits:
7feae99  Add a colon to the docs.

comment:152 Changed 4 years ago by
Example: This change

src/sage/rings/polynomial/multi_polynomial_libsingular.pyx
diff git a/src/sage/rings/polynomial/multi_polynomial_libsingular.pyx b/src/sage/rings/polynomial/multi_polynomial_libsingular.pyx index 1acd983..e69b9bd 100644
a b cdef class MPolynomial_libsingular(MPolynomial): 1995 1995 """ 1996 1996 self._poly = NULL 1997 1997 self._parent = parent 1998 self._parent_ring_ref = (<MPolynomialRing_libsingular>parent)._ring_ref 1999 self._parent_ring = singular_ring_reference(parent._ring, self._parent_ring_ref) 1998 #~ self._parent_ring_ref = (<MPolynomialRing_libsingular>parent)._ring_ref 1999 #~ self._parent_ring = singular_ring_reference(parent._ring, self._parent_ring_ref) 2000 self._parent_ring = parent._ring 2000 2001 2001 2002 def __dealloc__(self): 2002 2003 # WARNING: the Cython class self._parent is now no longer accessible! 2003 2004 if self._poly==NULL: 2004 2005 # e.g. MPolynomialRing_libsingular._zero_element 2005 singular_ring_delete(self._parent_ring, self._parent_ring_ref)2006 #~ singular_ring_delete(self._parent_ring, self._parent_ring_ref) 2006 2007 return 2007 2008 assert self._parent_ring != NULL # the constructor has no way to raise an exception 2008 2009 p_Delete(&self._poly, self._parent_ring) 2009 singular_ring_delete(self._parent_ring, self._parent_ring_ref)2010 #~ singular_ring_delete(self._parent_ring, self._parent_ring_ref) 2010 2011 2011 2012 def __copy__(self): 2012 2013 """ … … cdef inline MPolynomial_libsingular new_MP(MPolynomialRing_libsingular parent, p 5558 5559 """ 5559 5560 cdef MPolynomial_libsingular p = MPolynomial_libsingular.__new__(MPolynomial_libsingular) 5560 5561 p._parent = parent 5561 p._parent_ring_ref = parent._ring_ref 5562 p._parent_ring = singular_ring_reference(parent._ring, p._parent_ring_ref) 5562 #~ p._parent_ring_ref = parent._ring_ref 5563 #~ p._parent_ring = singular_ring_reference(parent._ring, p._parent_ring_ref) 5564 p._parent_ring = parent._ring 5563 5565 p._poly = juice 5564 5566 p_Normalize(p._poly, p._parent_ring) 5565 5567 return p
leads to a segfault in
sage t warnlong 32.8 src/sage/rings/polynomial/multi_polynomial_ideal.py
Hence, it definitely is not enough to count references only from a polynomial ring to the underlying libsingular ring and let the elements just use a pointer to the libsingular ring. The elements need to reference it, too.
comment:153 followups: 154 158 Changed 4 years ago by
Milestone:  sage6.4 → sage8.7 

Reviewers:  → Travis Scrimshaw 
Replying to SimonKing:
If a reference cycle is deleted during cyclic garbage collection, the objects are deallocated in arbitrary order. Hence, a polynomial could be deleted after its parent, and thus it needs a pointer to a valid libsingular ring.
I see, thank you for the explanation. Could you add this explanation as a comment in the code? Once done, you can set a positive review on my behalf.
comment:154 Changed 4 years ago by
Replying to tscrim:
I see, thank you for the explanation. Could you add this explanation as a comment in the code? Once done, you can set a positive review on my behalf.
What would be the best place? In the pyx file in the TWO locations in which elements are created (__init__
and newMP
? In the pyx file when the polynomial is deallocated (just one location)? In the pxd file as an explanation of _parent_ring
and parent_ring_ref
?
I'd prefer the pxd file.
comment:155 followup: 157 Changed 4 years ago by
I would do it in the pyx because that is where the code is actually being used. I would prefer in the __init__
if you wanted to choose one, but I am not opposed to putting it in both.
comment:156 Changed 4 years ago by
Commit:  7feae99bbda7b0eb54c9397c866119f9ccfc320e → c2b0bf61272c2062b2a4e47232f699fe306d1b21 

Branch pushed to git repo; I updated commit sha1. New commits:
c2b0bf6  Explain why libsingular elements have to reference the parent's libsingular ring

comment:157 Changed 4 years ago by
Replying to tscrim:
I would do it in the pyx because that is where the code is actually being used. I would prefer in the
__init__
if you wanted to choose one, but I am not opposed to putting it in both.
OK, I've put it in both (and both commutative and noncommutative).
comment:158 Changed 4 years ago by
Status:  needs_review → positive_review 

comment:159 Changed 4 years ago by
Status:  positive_review → needs_work 

Doctest failure reported by the patchbot on 8.7.beta3:
sage t long src/sage/rings/polynomial/polynomial_ring_constructor.py ********************************************************************** File "src/sage/rings/polynomial/polynomial_ring_constructor.py", line 562, in sage.rings.polynomial.polynomial_ring_constructor.PolynomialRing Failed example: n == total_ring_reference_count() Expected: True Got: False
comment:160 Changed 4 years ago by
Milestone:  sage8.7 → sage8.8 

Ticket retargeted after milestone closed (if you don't believe this ticket is appropriate for the Sage 8.8 release please retarget manually)
comment:161 Changed 3 years ago by
Milestone:  sage8.8 → sage8.9 

Tickets still needing working or clarification should be moved to the next release milestone at the soonest (please feel free to revert if you think the ticket is close to being resolved).
comment:162 Changed 3 years ago by
Milestone:  sage8.9 → sage9.1 

Ticket retargeted after milestone closed
comment:163 Changed 3 years ago by
Milestone:  sage9.1 → sage9.2 

Moving tickets to milestone sage9.2 based on a review of last modification date, branch status, and severity.
comment:164 Changed 3 years ago by
Branch:  u/SimonKing/make_libsingular_multivariate_polynomial_rings_collectable → public/make_libsingular_multivariate_polynomial_rings_collectable 

Commit:  c2b0bf61272c2062b2a4e47232f699fe306d1b21 → b4df239ee6d7d9540263108d5c4230822e1f1b5e 
I have merged the latest beta and get the two test failures below. It also seems that indeed this ticket will help with the problem in #29528, which came up in the upgrade of Singular #25993.
File "src/sage/rings/polynomial/multi_polynomial_libsingular.pyx", line 438, in sage.rings.polynomial.multi_polynomial_libsingular.MPolynomialRing_libsingular.__copy__ Failed example: total_ring_reference_count() == n + 4 Expected: True Got: False
The above is equal to n + 3
.
File "src/sage/rings/function_field/element.pyx", line 575, in sage.rings.function_field.element.FunctionFieldElement.valuation Failed example: O = L.maximal_order() Exception raised: Traceback (most recent call last): File "sage/misc/cachefunc.pyx", line 996, in sage.misc.cachefunc.CachedFunction.__call__ (build/cythonized/sage/misc/cachefunc.c:5891) return self.cache[k] File "sage/misc/weak_dict.pyx", line 704, in sage.misc.weak_dict.WeakValueDictionary.__getitem__ (build/cythonized/sage/misc/weak_dict.c:3671) raise KeyError(k) KeyError: ((<class 'sage.rings.function_field.order.FunctionFieldMaximalOrder_polymod'>, Function field in y defined by y^2 + y + (x^2 + 1)/x), ()) During handling of the above exception, another exception occurred: Traceback (most recent call last): File "/amd/compute/mwagerin/git/sage_compute/python3/local/lib/python3.7/sitepackages/sage/doctest/forker.py", line 680, in _run self.compile_and_execute(example, compiler, test.globs) File "/amd/compute/mwagerin/git/sage_compute/python3/local/lib/python3.7/sitepackages/sage/doctest/forker.py", line 1104, in compile_and_execute exec(compiled, globs) File "<doctest sage.rings.function_field.element.FunctionFieldElement.valuation[6]>", line 1, in <module> O = L.maximal_order() File "/amd/compute/mwagerin/git/sage_compute/python3/local/lib/python3.7/sitepackages/sage/rings/function_field/function_field.py", line 1884, in maximal_order return FunctionFieldMaximalOrder_polymod(self) File "sage/misc/classcall_metaclass.pyx", line 322, in sage.misc.classcall_metaclass.ClasscallMetaclass.__call__ (build/cythonized/sage/misc/classcall_metaclass.c:1741) return cls.classcall(cls, *args, **kwds) File "sage/misc/cachefunc.pyx", line 1001, in sage.misc.cachefunc.CachedFunction.__call__ (build/cythonized/sage/misc/cachefunc.c:6017) w = self.f(*args, **kwds) File "/amd/compute/mwagerin/git/sage_compute/python3/local/lib/python3.7/sitepackages/sage/structure/unique_representation.py", line 1008, in __classcall__ instance = typecall(cls, *args, **options) File "sage/misc/classcall_metaclass.pyx", line 486, in sage.misc.classcall_metaclass.typecall (build/cythonized/sage/misc/classcall_metaclass.c:2191) return (<PyTypeObject*>type).tp_call(cls, args, kwds) File "/amd/compute/mwagerin/git/sage_compute/python3/local/lib/python3.7/sitepackages/sage/rings/function_field/order.py", line 1245, in __init__ basis = [from_model(g) for g in model._maximal_order_basis()] File "/amd/compute/mwagerin/git/sage_compute/python3/local/lib/python3.7/sitepackages/sage/rings/function_field/function_field.py", line 3572, in _maximal_order_basis pols_in_S = _singular_normal(S.ideal(g))[0] File "/amd/compute/mwagerin/git/sage_compute/python3/local/lib/python3.7/sitepackages/sage/rings/qqbar_decorators.py", line 68, in wrapper return func(*args, **kwds) File "/amd/compute/mwagerin/git/sage_compute/python3/local/lib/python3.7/sitepackages/sage/rings/function_field/function_field.py", line 3491, in _singular_normal lib('normal.lib') File "sage/libs/singular/function.pyx", line 1846, in sage.libs.singular.function.lib (build/cythonized/sage/libs/singular/function.cpp:18116) sig_on() cysignals.signals.SignalError: Segmentation fault
New commits:
b4df239  13447: Merge tag '9.2.beta0' into #13447

comment:165 Changed 2 years ago by
Milestone:  sage9.2 → sage9.3 

comment:166 Changed 22 months ago by
Milestone:  sage9.3 → sage9.4 

Setting new milestone based on a cursory review of ticket status, priority, and last modification date.
comment:167 Changed 17 months ago by
Milestone:  sage9.4 → sage9.5 

Setting a new milestone for this ticket based on a cursory review.
comment:168 Changed 12 months ago by
Milestone:  sage9.5 → sage9.6 

comment:169 Changed 8 months ago by
Milestone:  sage9.6 → sage9.7 

comment:170 Changed 3 months ago by
Milestone:  sage9.7 → sage9.8 

On 5.4beta0 + #715 + #11521, there is a doctest failure on
bsd.math.washington.edu
, an x86_64 machine running MacOSX 10.6:The segmentation fault happens reliably, but is hard to study because
sage t gdb
(yes, that's possible!) orsage t verbose
does not trigger the problem.delete some tests but not others. The likely explanation is that a garbage collection has to be triggered under the right conditions, so that the memory corruption (which likely happens upon deallocate somewhere) happens in the right spot.
The segfault happens in the doctest for
CachedMethodCaller._instance_call
(line 1038 in the sage source;example_27
in the file~/.sage/tmp/cachefunc_*.py
left after doctesting), in the lineFurther instrumentation showed that the segfault happens in
sage/libs/singular/ring. pyx
, insingular_ring_new
, in the part that copies the strings over.The call
_omStrDup
segfaults fori=1
. Unwinding the_omStrDup
call:shows that it's actually the
omAlloc
call segfaulting. Forperturb=7
or higher, the segfault does not happen. Forperturb
a lower value it does. Given that the omAlloc addresses returned on earlier calls do not seem close to a page boundary, the only wayomAlloc
can fail is basically by a corrupted freelist an 8byte bin. Likely culprits:Perhaps someone claiming an
<int>,<int>
structure and storing a<void *>
in the second one?Note the
<char*>
to<long>
cast in the print statement. With an<int>
, the compiler complains about loss of precision, but not with<long>
. I haven't checked whether<long>
is really 64 bits on this machine, though. I have tried and the problem seems to persist with the old singular (5.4b0 has a recently upgraded singular).It would help a lot if someone could build singular to use plain malloc throughout and then use valgrind or a similar tool, which should be able to immediately catch a double free or outofbounds error. If the root of the problem is not OSXspecific, this would even show up on other architectures.
See also [http://trac.sagemath.org/sage_trac/ticket/715#comment:295 #715,comment 295] and below for some more details on how the diagnosis above was obtained.