# Ticket #7652: trac_7652.patch

File trac_7652.patch, 9.1 KB (added by ncohen, 11 years ago)
• ## doc/en/constructions/index.rst

# HG changeset patch
# User Nathann Cohen <nathann.cohen@gmail.com>
# Date 1260456798 -3600
# Node ID 92a5c0a4d83bff785f2024d8de51b7c94c2fa72d
# Parent  aa94d77e51e53e2096214e99828486d0b3c685e6
Adds Linear Programming to the Constructions Document.

diff -r aa94d77e51e5 -r 92a5c0a4d83b doc/en/constructions/index.rst
 a linear_algebra linear_codes graph_theory linear_programming rep_theory rings polynomials interface_issues contributions Indices and tables ==================
• ## new file doc/en/constructions/linear_programming.rst

diff -r aa94d77e51e5 -r 92a5c0a4d83b doc/en/constructions/linear_programming.rst
 - Linear Programming ================== Basics ------ What is a Linear Program ? """""""""""""""""""""""""" A linear program consists of the following two pieces of information : * A linear function, called the objective, which is to be maximized or minimized (for example 2 x + y) * Linear constraints on the variables (for example, 3 x + y \leq 2 and  2 x + 3 y \leq 8) The solver will then try to find a solution to the system of constraints such that the objective function is optimized, and return the values of the variables. What is a Mixed Integer Linear Program ? """""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" It is simply a Linear Program such that some variables are forced to take integer values instead of real values. This difference becomes very important when one learns that solving a Linear Program can be done in polynomial time while solving a general Mixed Integer Linear Program is NP-Complete (= there is no polynomial algorithm to solve it, according to a widely-spread belief that P\neq NP) Why is Linear Programming so useful ? """""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" Linear Programming is very useful in many Optimization and Graph-Theoretical problems because of its wide range of expression. Most of the time, a natural Linear Program can be easily written to solve a problem whose solution will be quickly computed thanks to the wealth of heuristics already contained in Linear Program Solvers. It is often hard to theoretically find out the execution time of a Linear Program, though they give very interesting results in practice. For more information, you can consult the Wikipedia page dedicated to Linear Programming : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linear_programming How can I solve a linear program using Sage ? --------------------------------------------- Sage can solve Linear Programs or Mixed Integer Linear Programs through the class MixedIntegerLinearProgram defined in sage.numerical.mip. To illustrate how it can be used, we will try to solve the following problem : .. MATH:: \mbox{Maximize : }&2 x_1 + x_2\\ \mbox{Such that : }&3 x_1 + 4 x_2\leq 2.5\\ &0.5\leq 1.2 x_1 + 0.5 x_2 \leq 4 First, we need a few informations about MIPVariable and how to read the optimal values when the solver has finished its job. Variables in MixedIntegerLinearProgram """""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" A variable linked to an instance of MixedIntegerLinearProgram behaves exactly as a dictionary would. It is declared the following way :: sage: p=MixedIntegerLinearProgram() sage: variable=p.new_variable() The variable variable can contain as many keys as you would like, each of them being formally unique. For example the following constraint (where P denotes the pressure, and T the temperature) : .. MATH:: 2 T_{\mbox{Madrid}} + 3 T_{\mbox{London}} - P_{\mbox{Seattle}} + \mbox{flow}_{3,5} + 8 \mbox{cost}_{(1,3)} + x_3 < 5\\ ... can be expressed in Sage (quite naturally, I hope !) this way :: sage: p=MixedIntegerLinearProgram() sage: temperature=p.new_variable() sage: pressure=p.new_variable() sage: x=p.new_variable() sage: cost=p.new_variable() sage: flow=p.new_variable(dim=2) sage: p.add_constraint(2*temperature["Madrid"]+3*temperature["London"]-pressure["Seattle"]+flow+8*cost[(1,3)]+x,max=5) This example is just meant to show you the different possibilities offered to you when you use the MixedIntegerLinearProgram class. You will not need to declare so many variables in usual applications. Notice how the variable flow is defined : you can use any hashable object as a key for a MIPVariable, but if you think you need more than one dimension, you need to explicitely say it when calling MixedIntegerLinearProgram.new_variable() For the user's convenience, however, there is a default variable attached to a Linear Program : indeed, the previous implementation means that each "variable" actually represents a property of a set of objects (these objects are strings in the case of temperature or a pair in the case of cost). In some cases, though it is useful to define an absolute variable which will not be indexed on anything. This can be done through the following notation :: sage: p = MixedIntegerLinearProgram() sage: B = p.new_variable() sage: p.set_objective( p["first unique variable"] + B + p[-3] ) In this case, two of these "unique" variables are defined through p["first unique variable"] and p[-3]. Let us solve this system ! """""""""""""""""""""""""" Now that we know what are variables, we are only several lines away from solving our system :: sage: # First, we define our MixedIntegerLinearProgram object, setting maximization=True sage: p=MixedIntegerLinearProgram( maximization = True ) sage: x=p.new_variable() sage: # Definition of the objective function sage: p.set_objective( 2*x+x ) sage: # Next, the two constraints sage: p.add_constraint( 3*x+4*x, max=2.5 ) sage: p.add_constraint( 1.5*x+0.5*x, max=4,min=0.5 ) sage: p.solve() # optional - requires Glpk or COIN-OR/CBC 1.6666666666666667 sage: x_sol=p.get_values(x) sage: print x_sol {1: 0.83333333333333337, 2: 0.0} The value returned by MixedIntegerLinearProgram.solve() is the optimal value of the objective function. To read the values taken by the variables one needs to call the method MixedIntegerLinearProgram.get_values which can return multiple values at the same time if needed (type sage: MixedIntegerLinearProgram.get_values? for more information on this function) Some famous examples --------------------------- Vertex Cover in a graph """""""""""""""""""""""" In the Vertex Cover problem, we are given a graph G and we want to find a subset S of its vertices of minimal cardinality such that each edge e is incident to at least one vertex of S. In order to achieve it, we define a binary variable b_v for each vertex v. .. MATH:: \mbox{Maximize : }& \sum_{v\in G.vertices()} b_v\\ \mbox{Such that : }&\forall (u,v)\in G.edges(), b_u + b_v \geq 1\\ &\forall v,b_v \mbox{ is a binary variable} In the linear program, the syntax is exactly the same :: sage: g=graphs.PetersenGraph() sage: p=MixedIntegerLinearProgram(maximization=False) sage: b=p.new_variable() sage: for (u,v) in g.edges(labels=None): ...          p.add_constraint(b[u]+b[v],min=1) sage: p.set_binary(b) And you but have to type p.solve() to see the result ! Maximum matching in a Graph """""""""""""""""""""""""""" In the maximum matching problem, we are given a graph G, and we are looking for a set of edges M of maximum cardinality such that no two edges from M are adjacent : .. MATH:: \mbox{Maximize : }& \sum_{e\in G.edges()} b_e\\ \mbox{Such that : }&\forall v\in G.vertices(), \sum_{(v,w)\in G}b_{uv} \leq 1\\ &\forall e\in G.edges(),b_e \mbox{ is a binary variable} Here is how this is solved through Sage on a Petersen Graph :: sage: g=graphs.PetersenGraph() sage: p=MixedIntegerLinearProgram() sage: b=p.new_variable(dim=2) sage: for u in g.vertices(): ...    p.add_constraint(sum([b[u][v] for v in g.neighbors(u)]),max=1) sage: for (u,v) in g.edges(labels=None): ...    p.add_constraint(b[u][v]+b[v][u],min=1,max=1) And the next step is p.solve() ! Solvers ------- Sage solves linear programs by calling specific libraries. Two are available for the moment : * GLPK _ : A Linear Program solver from GNU _ * CBC _ : Mixed Integer Linear Program solver from COIN-OR _ To install them if they are not available on your installation of Sage, type :: sage: # To install GLPK sage: install_package('glpk') # not tested sage: # To install Coin-OR Branch and Cut (CBC) sage: install_package('cbc')  # not tested