# Ticket #10775: streamplot.py

File streamplot.py, 9.5 KB (added by , 11 years ago) |
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1 | """ |

2 | Streamline plotting like Mathematica. |

3 | Copyright (c) 2011 Tom Flannaghan. |

4 | |

5 | Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy |

6 | of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal |

7 | in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights |

8 | to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell |

9 | copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is |

10 | furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions: |

11 | |

12 | The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in |

13 | all copies or substantial portions of the Software. |

14 | |

15 | THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR |

16 | IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, |

17 | FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE |

18 | AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER |

19 | LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, |

20 | OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN |

21 | THE SOFTWARE. |

22 | """ |

23 | |

24 | import numpy |

25 | import pylab |

26 | import matplotlib |

27 | |

28 | def streamplot(x, y, u, v, density=1, thickness=None, **kwargs): |

29 | '''Draws streamlines of a vector flow. x and y are 1d arrays |

30 | defining an *evenly spaced* grid. u and v are 2d arrays (shape |

31 | [y,x]) giving velocities. density controls the closeness of the |

32 | streamlines - slow for large values. Thickness can also be |

33 | specified as a 2d array, which controls line width - slow though.''' |

34 | |

35 | ## Sanity checks. |

36 | assert len(x.shape)==1 |

37 | assert len(y.shape)==1 |

38 | assert u.shape == (len(y), len(x)) |

39 | assert v.shape == (len(y), len(x)) |

40 | if thickness != None: |

41 | assert thickness.shape == (len(y), len(x)) |

42 | |

43 | ## Set up some constants - size of the grid used. |

44 | NGX = len(x) |

45 | NGY = len(y) |

46 | ## Constants used to convert between grid index coords and user coords. |

47 | DX = x[1]-x[0] |

48 | DY = y[1]-y[0] |

49 | XOFF = x[0] |

50 | YOFF = y[0] |

51 | |

52 | ## Now rescale velocity onto a unit square |

53 | u /= (x[-1]-x[0]) |

54 | v /= (y[-1]-y[0]) |

55 | ## Rescale v so it's in units of NGX. |

56 | v *= NGY/float(NGX) |

57 | ## So now s is in units of NGX. |

58 | |

59 | ## Speed calculation is needed for path integrations |

60 | speed = numpy.sqrt(u*u+v*v) |

61 | |

62 | ## Blank array: This is the heart of the algorithm. It begins life |

63 | ## zeroed, but is set to one when a streamline passes through each |

64 | ## box. Then streamlines are only allowed to pass through zeroed |

65 | ## boxes. The lower resolution of this grid determines the |

66 | ## approximate spacing between trajectories. |

67 | NB = int(30*density) |

68 | blank = numpy.zeros((NB,NB)) |

69 | ## Constants for conversion between grid-index space and |

70 | ## blank-index space |

71 | bx_spacing = NGX/float(NB-1) |

72 | by_spacing = NGY/float(NB-1) |

73 | |

74 | def blank_pos(xi, yi): |

75 | ## Takes grid space coords and returns nearest space in |

76 | ## the blank array. |

77 | return int((xi / bx_spacing) + 0.5), int((yi / by_spacing) + 0.5) |

78 | |

79 | def value_at(a, xi, yi): |

80 | ## Linear interpolation - nice and quick because we are |

81 | ## working in grid-index coordinates. |

82 | x = int(xi) |

83 | y = int(yi) |

84 | a00 = a[y,x] |

85 | a01 = a[y,x+1] |

86 | a10 = a[y+1,x] |

87 | a11 = a[y+1,x+1] |

88 | xt = xi - x |

89 | yt = yi - y |

90 | a0 = a00*(1-xt) + a01*xt |

91 | a1 = a10*(1-xt) + a11*xt |

92 | return a0*(1-yt) + a1*yt |

93 | |

94 | def rk4_integrate(x0, y0): |

95 | ## This function does RK4 forward and back trajectories from |

96 | ## the initial conditions, with the odd 'blank array' |

97 | ## termination conditions. TODO tidy the integration loops. |

98 | |

99 | def f(xi, yi): |

100 | dt_ds = 1./value_at(speed, xi, yi) |

101 | ui = value_at(u, xi, yi) |

102 | vi = value_at(v, xi, yi) |

103 | return ui*dt_ds, vi*dt_ds |

104 | |

105 | def g(xi, yi): |

106 | dt_ds = 1./value_at(speed, xi, yi) |

107 | ui = value_at(u, xi, yi) |

108 | vi = value_at(v, xi, yi) |

109 | return -ui*dt_ds, -vi*dt_ds |

110 | |

111 | check = lambda xi, yi: xi>=0 and xi<NGX and yi>=0 and yi<NGY |

112 | |

113 | bx_changes = [] |

114 | by_changes = [] |

115 | |

116 | # Forward trace |

117 | ds = 0.01*NGX |

118 | xi = x0 |

119 | yi = y0 |

120 | xb, yb = blank_pos(xi, yi) |

121 | initxb, inityb = xb, yb |

122 | stotal = 0 |

123 | xf_traj = [] |

124 | yf_traj = [] |

125 | while check(xi, yi): |

126 | # Time step. First save the point. |

127 | xf_traj.append(xi) |

128 | yf_traj.append(yi) |

129 | # Next, advance one using RK4 |

130 | try: |

131 | k1x, k1y = f(xi, yi) |

132 | k2x, k2y = f(xi + .5*ds*k1x, yi + .5*ds*k1y) |

133 | k3x, k3y = f(xi + .5*ds*k2x, yi + .5*ds*k2y) |

134 | k4x, k4y = f(xi + ds*k3x, yi + ds*k3y) |

135 | except IndexError: |

136 | # Out of the domain on one of the intermediate steps |

137 | break |

138 | xi += ds*(k1x+2*k2x+2*k3x+k4x) / 6. |

139 | yi += ds*(k1y+2*k2y+2*k3y+k4y) / 6. |

140 | # Final position might be out of the domain |

141 | if not check(xi, yi): break |

142 | stotal += ds |

143 | # Next, if s gets to thres, check blank. |

144 | new_xb, new_yb = blank_pos(xi, yi) |

145 | if new_xb != xb or new_yb != yb: |

146 | # New square, so check and colour. Quit if required. |

147 | if blank[new_yb,new_xb] == 0: |

148 | blank[new_yb,new_xb] = 1 |

149 | bx_changes.append(new_xb) |

150 | by_changes.append(new_yb) |

151 | xb = new_xb |

152 | yb = new_yb |

153 | else: |

154 | break |

155 | if stotal > NGX: |

156 | break |

157 | |

158 | # Backward trace |

159 | xi = x0 |

160 | yi = y0 |

161 | xb, yb = blank_pos(xi, yi) |

162 | initxb, inityb = xb, yb |

163 | xb_traj = [] |

164 | yb_traj = [] |

165 | while check(xi, yi): |

166 | # Time step. First save the point. |

167 | xb_traj.append(xi) |

168 | yb_traj.append(yi) |

169 | # Next, advance one using RK4 |

170 | try: |

171 | k1x, k1y = g(xi, yi) |

172 | k2x, k2y = g(xi + .5*ds*k1x, yi + .5*ds*k1y) |

173 | k3x, k3y = g(xi + .5*ds*k2x, yi + .5*ds*k2y) |

174 | k4x, k4y = g(xi + ds*k3x, yi + ds*k3y) |

175 | except IndexError: |

176 | break |

177 | xi += ds*(k1x+2*k2x+2*k3x+k4x) / 6. |

178 | yi += ds*(k1y+2*k2y+2*k3y+k4y) / 6. |

179 | if not check(xi, yi): break |

180 | stotal += ds |

181 | # Next, if s gets to thres, check blank. |

182 | new_xb, new_yb = blank_pos(xi, yi) |

183 | if new_xb != xb or new_yb != yb: |

184 | #print new_xb, new_yb, xi, yi |

185 | # New square, so check and colour. Quit if required. |

186 | if blank[new_yb,new_xb] == 0: |

187 | blank[new_yb,new_xb] = 1 |

188 | bx_changes.append(new_xb) |

189 | by_changes.append(new_yb) |

190 | xb = new_xb |

191 | yb = new_yb |

192 | else: |

193 | break |

194 | if stotal > NGX: |

195 | break |

196 | |

197 | x_traj = xb_traj[::-1] + xf_traj[1:] |

198 | y_traj = yb_traj[::-1] + yf_traj[1:] |

199 | |

200 | if stotal > 4*bx_spacing: |

201 | blank[inityb, initxb] = 1 |

202 | return x_traj, y_traj |

203 | else: |

204 | for xb, yb in zip(bx_changes, by_changes): |

205 | blank[yb, xb] = 0 |

206 | return None |

207 | |

208 | ## A quick function for integrating trajectories if blank==0. |

209 | trajectories = [] |

210 | def traj(xb, yb): |

211 | if blank[yb, xb] == 0: |

212 | t = rk4_integrate(xb*bx_spacing, yb*by_spacing) |

213 | if t != None: |

214 | trajectories.append(t) |

215 | |

216 | ## Now we build up the trajectory set. I've found it best to look |

217 | ## for blank==0 along the edges first, and work inwards. |

218 | for indent in range(NB/2): |

219 | for x in range(NB-2*indent): |

220 | traj(x+indent, indent) |

221 | traj(x+indent, NB-1-indent) |

222 | traj(indent, x+indent) |

223 | traj(NB-1-indent, x+indent) |

224 | |

225 | ## PLOTTING HERE. |

226 | for t in trajectories: |

227 | # Finally apply the rescale to adjust back to user-coords from |

228 | # grid-index coordinates. |

229 | tx = numpy.array(t[0])*DX+XOFF |

230 | ty = numpy.array(t[1])*DY+YOFF |

231 | |

232 | # If thickness is specified then break down the line. If not, |

233 | # plot as one trajectory. |

234 | if thickness != None: |

235 | ## Horrible!! Is there a better way? |

236 | linewidth = numpy.zeros(len(tx), dtype=numpy.float32) |

237 | for i in range(len(tx)): |

238 | linewidth[i] = value_at(thickness, t[0][i], t[1][i]) |

239 | linewidth /= thickness.max() |

240 | |

241 | for i in range(len(tx)-1): |

242 | pylab.plot(tx[i:i+2], ty[i:i+2], lw=3*linewidth[i], **kwargs) |

243 | else: |

244 | ## More sane and much faster without variable thickness. |

245 | pylab.plot(tx, ty, **kwargs) |

246 | |

247 | ## Add arrows half way along each trajectory. |

248 | n = len(tx)/2 |

249 | pylab.arrow(tx[n], ty[n], |

250 | (tx[n+1]-tx[n])*.01, (ty[n+1]-ty[n])*.01, |

251 | head_width=DX, **kwargs) |

252 | |

253 | return |

254 | |

255 | def test(): |

256 | pylab.figure(1) |

257 | x = numpy.linspace(-3,3,100) |

258 | y = numpy.linspace(-3,3,100) |

259 | u = -1-x**2+y[:,numpy.newaxis] |

260 | v = 1+x-y[:,numpy.newaxis]**2 |

261 | streamplot(x, y, u, v, color='k', density=1) |

262 | pylab.show() |

263 | |

264 | ## Very slow - thickness kills speed. |

265 | #pylab.figure(2) |

266 | #pylab.title('Line width proportional to speed') |

267 | #x = numpy.linspace(-3,3,100) |

268 | #y = numpy.linspace(-3,3,200) |

269 | #u = -1-x**2+y[:,numpy.newaxis] |

270 | #v = 1+x-y[:,numpy.newaxis]**2 |

271 | #speed = numpy.sqrt(u*u + v*v) |

272 | #streamplot(x, y, u, v, thickness=speed, color='k') |

273 | |

274 | if __name__ == '__main__': |

275 | test() |