# Ticket #1186(closed defect: fixed)

Opened 6 years ago

## [with patch, positive review] Charpoly of a matrix of polynomials sometimes breaks

Reported by: Owned by: kedlaya was major sage-2.10.3 linear algebra

### Description

The following:

P.<a,b,c> = PolynomialRing(Integers())
u = MatrixSpace(P,3)([[0,0,a],[1,0,b],[0,1,c]])
Q.<x> = PolynomialRing(P)
u.charpoly('x')

returns as intended:

x^3 + (-1*c)*x^2 + (-1*b)*x - a

but the following code:

P.<a,b,c> = PolynomialRing(Rationals())
u = MatrixSpace(P,3)([[0,0,a],[1,0,b],[0,1,c]])
Q.<x> = PolynomialRing(P)
u.charpoly('x')

does not, instead returning the traceback:

<type 'exceptions.TypeError'>             Traceback (most recent call last)

/home/kedlaya/<ipython console> in <module>()

/home/kedlaya/matrix2.pyx in sage.matrix.matrix2.Matrix.charpoly()

/home/kedlaya/matrix2.pyx in sage.matrix.matrix2.Matrix._charpoly_hessenberg()

/home/kedlaya/sage-complete/local/lib/python2.5/site-packages/sage/rings/polynomial/polynomial_ring.py in __call__(self, x, check, is_gen, construct, absprec)
240         C = self.__polynomial_class
241         if absprec is None:
--> 242             return C(self, x, check, is_gen, construct=construct)
243         else:
244             return C(self, x, check, is_gen, construct=construct, absprec = absprec)

/home/kedlaya/polynomial_element.pyx in sage.rings.polynomial.polynomial_element.Polynomial_generic_dense.__init__()

/home/kedlaya/multi_polynomial_libsingular.pyx in sage.rings.polynomial.multi_polynomial_libsingular.MPolynomialRing_libsingular.__call__()

/home/kedlaya/sage-complete/local/lib/python2.5/site-packages/sage/rings/rational_field.py in __call__(self, x, base)
180         if isinstance(x, sage.rings.rational.Rational):
181             return x
--> 182         return sage.rings.rational.Rational(x, base)
183
184     def construction(self):

/home/kedlaya/rational.pyx in sage.rings.rational.Rational.__init__()

/home/kedlaya/rational.pyx in sage.rings.rational.Rational.__set_value()

/home/kedlaya/sage-complete/local/lib/python2.5/site-packages/sage/rings/fraction_field_element.py in _rational_(self)
270         Z = integer_ring.IntegerRing()
271         try:
--> 272             return Z(self.__numerator) / Z(self.__denominator)
273         except AttributeError:
274             pass

/home/kedlaya/integer_ring.pyx in sage.rings.integer_ring.IntegerRing_class.__call__()

<type 'exceptions.TypeError'>: lift() takes exactly one argument (0 given)

## Change History

### comment:1 Changed 6 years ago by mabshoff

• Milestone set to sage-2.8.13

### comment:2 Changed 6 years ago by AlexGhitza

I tracked the bug down to the function _charpoly_hessenberg() in matrix2.pyx. The problem occurs at the very end of the function, when we want to turn the list v of coefficients into the characteristic polynomial. More precisely, the elements of v live in the fraction field of the polynomial ring P (this is a side effect of hessenbergizing the matrix), and the function was trying to make them into coefficients of a polynomial over P itself; this is where the error was coming up. I changed this to get a polynomial over the fraction field of P.

### comment:3 Changed 6 years ago by AlexGhitza

• Summary changed from Charpoly of a matrix of polynomials sometimes breaks to [with patch] Charpoly of a matrix of polynomials sometimes breaks

### comment:4 Changed 6 years ago by robertwb

• Summary changed from [with patch] Charpoly of a matrix of polynomials sometimes breaks to [with patch?] Charpoly of a matrix of polynomials sometimes breaks

Do not apply this patch.

Though the operations take place in the fraction field, the coefficients all live in the original ring (proof: use the determinant form of charpoly) and this is why this line was there.

This should be fixed, but this is not the right fix.

### comment:5 Changed 6 years ago by AlexGhitza

Excellent point. I've done some more digging, and here's what I think is at the bottom of all this:

P.<a,b> = QQ[]
Q.<x> = PolynomialRing(P)
F = P.fraction_field()
f=F(a)*x
Q(f)

returns

---------------------------------------------------------------------------
<type 'exceptions.TypeError'>             Traceback (most recent call last)

/opt/sage-2.8.12/devel/sage-alex/sage/matrix/<ipython console> in <module>()

/opt/sage/local/lib/python2.5/site-packages/sage/rings/polynomial/polynomial_ring.py in __call__(self, x, check, is_gen, construct, absprec)
240         C = self.__polynomial_class
241         if absprec is None:
--> 242             return C(self, x, check, is_gen, construct=construct)
243         else:
244             return C(self, x, check, is_gen, construct=construct, absprec = absprec)

/opt/sage-2.8.12/devel/sage-alex/sage/matrix/polynomial_element.pyx in sage.rings.polynomial.polynomial_element.Polynomial_generic_dense.__init__()

/opt/sage-2.8.12/devel/sage-alex/sage/matrix/multi_polynomial_libsingular.pyx in sage.rings.polynomial.multi_polynomial_libsingular.MPolynomialRing_libsingular.__call__()

/opt/sage/local/lib/python2.5/site-packages/sage/rings/rational_field.py in __call__(self, x, base)
180         if isinstance(x, sage.rings.rational.Rational):
181             return x
--> 182         return sage.rings.rational.Rational(x, base)
183
184     def construction(self):

/opt/sage-2.8.12/devel/sage-alex/sage/matrix/rational.pyx in sage.rings.rational.Rational.__init__()

/opt/sage-2.8.12/devel/sage-alex/sage/matrix/rational.pyx in sage.rings.rational.Rational.__set_value()

/opt/sage/local/lib/python2.5/site-packages/sage/rings/fraction_field_element.py in _rational_(self)
270         Z = integer_ring.IntegerRing()
271         try:
--> 272             return Z(self.__numerator) / Z(self.__denominator)
273         except AttributeError:
274             pass

/opt/sage-2.8.12/devel/sage-alex/sage/matrix/integer_ring.pyx in sage.rings.integer_ring.IntegerRing_class.__call__()

<type 'exceptions.TypeError'>: lift() takes exactly one argument (0 given)

The culprit is call in multi_polynomial_libsingular.pyx, where the function tries a bunch of things and then, before giving up, tries to coerce a into QQ (which of course will not work). Somehow our polynomial f is slipping through the cracks. Note that this is a multivariable issue; the same thing works perfectly well over QQ[a].

I don't understand enough about how call works to fix this properly. I did however notice that, in this situation, working with the string 'a' fixes the issue. I'm replacing the old patch with a very simple one that does this, but someone with more experience with these things should take a look at it.

### comment:6 Changed 5 years ago by mabshoff

• Summary changed from [with patch?] Charpoly of a matrix of polynomials sometimes breaks to [with patch, with negative review] Charpoly of a matrix of polynomials sometimes breaks

### comment:7 Changed 5 years ago by cwitty

• Summary changed from [with patch, with negative review] Charpoly of a matrix of polynomials sometimes breaks to [with patch, needs review] Charpoly of a matrix of polynomials sometimes breaks

The patch was changed after robertwb's review above, so somebody should look at the new patch.

### comment:8 Changed 5 years ago by mhansen

• Summary changed from [with patch, needs review] Charpoly of a matrix of polynomials sometimes breaks to [with patch, positive review] Charpoly of a matrix of polynomials sometimes breaks

Apply both patches. Works for me against 2.10.3.alpha0.

### comment:9 Changed 5 years ago by mabshoff

• Status changed from new to closed
• Resolution set to fixed

Merged in Sage 2.10.3.rc0

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